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stage, contemplation, supreme, mind, yogin, spirit, lord and time

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YO-CHOW, vi?ehou'. A walled city in the Province of Iin-nan, China, having the rank of fu. and capital of a department of the same name. It is situated near the point where the Tung-flag Lake connects with the river Yang-tee. Its inhabitants have long been noted for their turbulence, and their hostility to foreigners. It is now thrown open to foreign trade, the small foreign population making their settlements be tween the city and the river. The trade is princi pally transit.

YOGA, (Skt.. conjunction, tion, religious or abstract contemplation). The name of one of the orthodox systems of phi losophy of the While the basis of this system, the Sankhya (q.v.), is chiefly concerned in teaching the toffees, or lu•ineiples of creation, and the successive development of the latter, the main object of the Yoga is to establish the doctrine of a Supreme Being, and to teach the means by which the human soul may become permanently united with it. This Lord, or Supreme Being. is defined by Pat anjali (q.v.). the reputed founder of the system. as "a par ticular Puru.sa, or spirit. who is untouched by ntfeetions. works, the result of works, or deserts; in whom the germ of onmiseience reaches its ex treme ; who is the preceptor of even the first, because he is not limited by time; and whose appellation is Om, the term of glory." See OM.

To attain the concentration which leads to union of the soul with the Supreme Lord, eight stages are necessary. These are self-control (yenta), religious observance (niyante), pos tures (Ovine), regulation of the breath (pray• dyitina ), restraint of the senses (pi-off/00ra), steadying of the mind (dlairaten, meditation (dhyOna), and profound contemplation (same ilhi), The first stage, self-control, consists in not doing injury to living beings, veracity, avoid ance of theft, chastity, and non-acceptance of .gifts. The second stage, religious observance, comprises external as well as internal purity, contentment, austerity, muttering of the Vedic hymns, and devoted reliance on the Lord. The third stage, of Yoga postures of various sorts, is regarded as essential to those following. The fourth stage, regulation of the breath, is three fold, according as it concerns exhalation or in halation, or becomes tantamount to suspension of the breath. The fifth stage, the restraint of the senses, means the diversion or withdrawal of the senses from their respective objects, and their entire accommodation to the nature of the mind. This stage is preparatory to the

sixth, or the steadying of the mind, which means the freeing of the mind from any sensual dis turbance, by fixing the thoughts on some part of the body, on the navel or the tip of the nose, for instance. the seventh stage, is the fixing of the mind on the one object of knowl edge, the Supreme Spirit, so as to exclude all other thoughts. The eighth and last stage, pro found contemplation, is the perfect absorption of thought into the one object of contemplation, the Supreme Spirit; it is devoid of all thought, even of meditation. In such a state a Yogin is insensible to heat and cold, to pleasure and pain ; he is the same in prosperity and adversity; he enjoys an ecstatic condition. The last three stages are also comprised under the distinctive name sentyame, or 'restraint,' because it is chiefly on the perfection attained in these three collectively that depend the wonderful results which are promised to a Yogin when he applies them to the contemplation of special objects. Such results are, for instance, a knowledge of the past and future, a knowledge of the sounds of all animals, of all that happened in one's former births, of the thoughts of others, of the time of one's own death, a knowledge of all that exists in the different, worlds, of stars and planets, of the structure of one's own body, etc. There are especially, however, eight great pow ers which a Yogin will acquire when properly regulating and applying the satryanza—the power of shrinking into the form of the minutest atom, of becoming extremely light, of becoming ex tremely heavy, of unlimited reach of the organs, of irresistible will, of obtaining perfect dominion over everything, of changing the course of na ture, and, lastly, of going anywhere at will. If the Yogin applies satpyama to the contemplation of the smallest divisions of time, and the suc cessive order in which such divisions occur, he obtains a discrimination which enables him to understand the subtle elements, and to see all objects at once. When his intellect has become free from all considerations of self, and his spirit is no longer subject to the result of acts per formed, and when both have thus obtained the same degree of purity, the Yogi') obtains eternal liberation.

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