YOKOHAMA, (Cross Strand). The principal treaty port of Japan. situated on the south coast of the main island. 18 miles south of Tokio. the capital; latitude 35° 26' N., longitude 139° 39' E. (Map: Japan, F 6). It stands on a little indentation on the west shore of the Gulf, or Bay, of Yedo, opposite the small prefectural city of Kanagawa, two miles north, originally designated in the treaty of 1858 as the port to be opened to foreign trade in the following year. Its position on the Tokaido. how ever, exposed the foreign residents to frequent attacks by the military retainers of the territorial barons as they journeyed to and from Yedo. and the native authorities favored the removal of the settlement to its present site on the 'opposite strand,' where stood at that time only a few fishermen's huts. The settlement then estab lished. and the large native town which has grown up alongside of it on the north, occupy the original sea beach and a large stretch of filled-in swamp land at the hack, bounded on the south and southwest by a tidal creek stretching west and southwest to Mississippi Bay. At a later date a well-wooded hill on the south of this creek. now known as 'The Bluff,' was thrown open to foreigners for residential purposes, and it is now thickly dotted with handsome villas and bungalows. In 1901 the villages of Homnoku, Negishi. and Nakamnra. lying along the foot of
the bluff as far as Alississippi Bay. were an nexed to the municipality, which in 1903 con tained 46.367 houses and a population of 267.550. including 2039 Europeans and Americans, and as many Chinese. The town is well laid out and contains many fine buildings of stone. the prefectural buildings, the Saihansho or court-house, post office, custom house, railway station, a public hall. an Anglican, a French Catholic, and a Protestant Union church in the settlement, and several native churches. There are also hospitals. a fine cricket and recreation ground, a rave course. a public garden on the Bluff, hotels, cluh-houses. banks. and several weekly and daily newspapers. in English, French, and Japanese. A fine water supply was intro duced iii 1887, the source of the supply being at Sagami•gawa 311 miles distant. Ships and unload at a great pier 2000 feet long, and the is rendered safe by two great !weal:Ai aters 12.000 feet in length. Two large graving (looks were completed in 1896-97. The total value of the trade of the port in 1902 was 228.3118.1s0 yen, or about $114.155,000; of this the foreign imports amounted to 89,194.210 men. Yokohama is great silk emporium of the country, No10 is for ten.