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York

roman, built, north, england, erected and school

YORK. The capital of Yorkshire, England. situated at the junction of the Ouse and Foss, nearly equidistant from London and Edinburgh (Slap: England. E 3). The city preserves its mediaeval aspect with its narrow streets, quaint horses, ancient gateways, and double wall'. The walls inclose a circuit of 214 miles, and along the tops have formed an interesting promenade from remote times. There are remains or me morials of Roman towers and temples, and of the earliest British churches. One of the most magnificent of the Anglo-Saxon churches was erected at York in the eighth century. and. de stroyed by fire. rebuilt. enlarged, and changed from time to time, is now known as York ster. A portion of the original church was dis interred during excavations in 1829. The pres ent structure ranks with the finest specimens of Cothie architecture in the world. It was mainly built in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Its length is 525 feet, and its extreme breadth 250 feet. The Roman Catholics have a, fine pro cathedral. The educational institutions include Saint Peter': School. founded in 1557, Arch bishop liolgate's free school. dating from Henry VIII., and the Yorkshire School for the Blind, conducted in a palace originally built for the Lord President of the Council of the North.

The building erected for a fine art exhibition held in 1879 contains a concert-hall and picture galleries. The Yorkshire Philosophical Society possesses a handsome building and gardens on the site of Saint Mary's Abbey, with a museum, rich in antiquarian relies and speeimens illustrative of natural history. There are also the county hos pital. the first established in England north of the Trent, the lunatic asylum, and the Friends' retreat. The ancient castle, with the exception of its imposing Clifford's tower, is superseded by the modern and commodious assize courts. The Guildhall. a fine Gothic building, was erected in 1446. The government is vested in 12 aldermen and 36 councilors, of whom one is Lord Mayor.

The annual rent from the municipal estates yields $1S.645. The municipality owns the Foss Canal, provides tugs for towing vessels between Hull and York. and constitutes the Ouse navigation authority. It has built promenades and baths along the river. The city's industries include the making of leather gloves. combs, glass. etc., iron foundries. flax-spinning. the manufacture of linen, and the construction of railway carriages.

Before the Roman invasion York was one of the chief towns of the Brigantes. the most moiler oils and powerful of the British tribes. It was constituted a Roman station. under the name of Eboraeum, by Agricola about a.D. 79, and became the principal seat of Roman power in the north, perhaps in all Britain. Hero Hadrian lived old SeVerns died. here. too, died Constant ins Chlmms, the father of Constantine the Great, and sonic believe his greater son was born here. When the emperors visited the province, York was their chosen residence. It sneered dur ing the conflict between the Itritons and the Picts. against whose incursions York was material defense. It afterwards became tile capital of Northumbri:4. The first metropolitan church in Elmland was built here by Edwin. the Nortimmbriau King. whom Paulimis baptized.

the Conqueror was long unable to over come this strrombold of the north.

York has an interesting record. reaching from early Norman Hines down to the Civil War, of royal visits, conferences, and meetings of Parlia ment. In 1536, during the insurrections timse quent upon the dissolution of the monasteries by Henry VIII., the city was seized by the insurgents of the 'pilgrimage of grace.' In its immediate neighborhood, Fairfax, in 1611, con Tiered Prince l'Inpert on Marston Atom.. The eity and castle, already besieged, surrendered to the Parliamentarians a few weeks after. Popu lation, in 1891, 67,749; in 1901, 77,793. Con sult Twyford, York and York Cos//c ( I8S3).