YPSILANTI, ip'se-Iiity/t4, or HYPSILAN TIS. The name of a Fanariot family (see PA NARIOTS ) claiming descent from a branch of the Imperial stock of the Comneni. The claim of its members to distinction is derived from their leadership of the Greeks in the struggle for independence of Turkish rule.—A LE KAN DER rSILANTI (e.1725-1807) was Hospmlar of NVal laehia (1774-77, 1796-98) and of Moldavia (1787), and was executed at Constantinople for alleged complicity in Greek conspiracies. His son, CONSTANTINE Yesll..kma (1760-1816), was appointed Hospodar of Moldavia in 1799 and of Wallachia in 1802. His sympathy with Russia led (1806) to his dismissal and flight to Tran sylvania. Reiistablished in the government of Wallachia by the he-showed his hatred for the Porte by encouraging (1807) the Ser vians in their insurrection, but soon retired to Kiev, in Russia, where he died in 1S16. Of his sons, the eldest, ALEXANDER (1792-1828), served for some time in the Russian army. fought with distinction against Napoleon in, 1812-13, and by 1S17 attained the rank of ma jor-general. He was chosen by the Heterists as their chief in 1820. (See FIET.ERIA PHILIKE. In promotion of the cause of Greek independ ence. he collected large sums in Russia. and at
Jassy in March, 1821. proclaimed the independ ence of Greece. Little suited by nature to guide the movement he had originated. he was defeated by the Turks near Dragasani (June 19th), and forced to take refuge in Austria. Ile was arrest ed and kept a prisoner for six years at Munkites and Theresienstadt. Released in 1827, broken in spirit and body by chagrin and priva tions, he retired to Vienna. where he died. His younger brother. DEMETRIUS (1793-1832), also began his career in the Russian army. Sent to Greece by his brother to assume the lead ership of the revolt there, he took part in the capture of Tripolitza (October, 1821), but was less successful in the following year in his attack on Enbea. His gallant defense of Argos against the Turks stopped their victorious advance (1823). II is stubborn resistance ( 1825) to the victorious Pasha at Napoli was another valuable service to Greece. In 1828 he was made commander-in-chief; but differences arising between him and the President, Capo d'lstrias, he resigned his post in January, 1830.