of Leo Juda- (154]-42) ; the elegant version of Sebastian Chateillon (1546-54) ; the faithful ren dering of Immanuel Tremellio and F. du Jon (1571-79) ; the painstaking version of Johannes Fischer—Piscator' (1601-07) ; and those by Coe ceius (before 1669). Sebastian Schmidt (1696), Jean le Clerc (1693), Charles Francois Houbi gant (1753) for the first time from a critically restored original, J. A. Dathe (1773-94), and Schott and \Vinzer (1816).
) The Peshitto, or Syriac Vulgate, is possibly the earliest of the transla tions that were made into various Aramaic dia lects. It is evidently the of many men. Concerning the Jewish origin of Proverbs and Chronicles there van be no doubt, and there is no indication of a different origin in the case of the Pentateuch. But in the Psalms and the Prophets the Greek version has clearly been used, either by the original translator or by a later editor, who probably was a Christian. The Hebrew text used shows that no part of the ver sion is likely to be older than the First Century A.D., and it may not have been completed until the beginning of the Third. It became the ltible of the Edessene Church, as the Greek version passed front the synagogue to the Greek churches. The text was printed in the Paris (1645) and London Polyglots •(1657), by Lee (1824) , at Urania (1852), by Ceriani (Codex Ambrosianus. 1876-83), and at Alosul (1887).
(2) A translation into Syriac from the Greek text of Origen's IIexapla was made in Alexandria by Paul of Tella for the Monophysite Church in 616, published by Ceriani (1874). It is of great value for the restoration of Origen's text.
(3) Numerous fragments have been found of a translation made in Syria, and in vogue among Christians, dating from the Fourth Century.
(4) Of the two Targums written in Juda-an Aramaic, though edited in Babylonia, that are ascribed to Onkelos and Jonathan, the former is probably the older. The translation accompany ing the reading of the Law was at first given orally; written renderings to aid the memory may have been gathered in the age of Onkelos ( = Aquila ), hut the final edition cannot have been made before c.400 A.D. The Prophets called for, and permitted, greater freedom in interpreta tion; written translations may have begun to appear in the time of .Jonathan (Theodotion?) hut the final edition is likely to have been made after that of Onkelos. The so-called Jerusalem Tat-gums I., 11., and III. were not
edited before the end of the Seventh Century, as allusions to the wife and daughter of Mohammed show, while of the material may be very old, as a reference to John 11yrcanus indicates. The to the Hagiographa belong to the Seventh Century; to Esther there are two; to Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel there is none. The Targums are printed in the Polyglot and 11ab binie Bibles, and by Berliner (Onkelos) and La garde (Prophets and Hagiographa). Recently discovered .Jenienite AISS. give a more trustwor thy supralinear vocalization.
(5) The Samaritan Targum is based on the lIebrew text adopted by the Sheehemite com munity. It has been published in the Polyglots and by Petermann-Vollers (1872-91). Its age is uncertain. As the 'Samaritan' quoted in hexa plaric scholia seems to be a Greek translation of this Targum, it probably existed before Origen's time.
IV. Egyptian.—(I) The Sahidic version, of which parts have been published by Ciasea, Er man, AIaspero, and Lagarde, is probably the old est of the Egyptian translations, and may go hack to the beginning of the Third Century, as it seems to have been made from a Greek text earlier than that of Origen. at least in the ease of Job.
(2) Of the Aklnimie, Fayyumic. and Alem phitic recensions of a :Middle Egyptian version, somewhat later than the Sahidic, fragments have been published by Zoega, Quatremere, and AIas pero.
(3) The Buhairic version, of which Lagarde has published the Pentateuch and Psalter, and Tattam the Prophets, is no doubt the youngest of the Egyptian versions. It may belong to the end of the Fourth Century.
V. Ethiopic.—The Ethiopic version was made from the Greek. It is probably the work of dif ferent translators in the Fourth and Fifth cen turies. In some places it seems to have pre served a purer text than that of Origen. In ad dition to the books of the Greek Bible, it included also such works as Enoch, Jubilees, and Fourth Esdras, The Oetateuch was published -by Dill mann (1853-71) ; Joel, also by him (1879) ; Jo nah, by Wright (1857) ; Obadiah and Alalachi (1892), Lamentations and Isaiah (1893), by Bachmann; the Psalter, by R5diger (1815) ; Dillmann published the Apocrypha (1894) and edited texts of Enoch (1851), Jubilees (1859), and Ascensio Isahe (1877) ; Charles edited Jubi lees and Ascensio Isahe (1899) ; and Fleming published a critical text of Enoch (1902).