BOSNIA, bozini-A ( from the river Roma. /111 affluent of the Save). Previous to 1878 the north westernmost portion of the Turkish Empire, now (together with Herzegovina) virtually a province of Austria-Ilungary. (with Herzegovina) is hounded by Croatia and Slavonia on the north and west: Servia. the Turkish district of NMI bazar (occupied by Austro-Hungarian forces), and on the east ; and Dalmatia on the southwest (Map: Austria-llungary, E 4).
lts area. including Herzegovina, is about 19,700 square miles: exclusive of Herzegovina, about 16,170 square miles. The surface of Bosnia is exceedingly mountainous. a large portion being covered by the numerous offshoots of the Dinarie Alps. The highest summit rises nearly 8000 feet above sea-level. The northern chains are generally well wooded, and inclose fertile val leys. while the mountain regions of the south are mostly rocky and barren. On the north ern frontier the country inclines toward the Save. The chief rivers are the Save, which forms most of the northern boundary, and the Drina, which separates Bosnia from Servia. The southern part is watered chiefly by the Narenta. There are, besides, several minor streams, such as the Vrbas, the Bosna, and a few others. The climate is generally healthy, but exceedingly vari able. The average annual temperature at Sera CVO is over 48°, but the mercury falls in the winter as low as --2°, while in the summer it rises occasionally to 93°. Bosnia is principally an agricultural country, agriculture engaging nearly 90 per cent. of the population. The meth ods employed are of a primitive character, and extensive areas of fruitful land remain unculti vated. The chief European cereals are raised, . and much attention is paid to the cultivation of fruits. especially plums. of which great quanti ties are exported in a dry state. Tobacco is an important product, the annual crop amount ing to over :3000 tons. Sugar-beetsarealsogrown, and silk-culture has been 'introduced. The Aus tro-Hungarian Government has recently taken steps toward furthering the agricultural inter ests of Bosnia by establishing several agricul tural experiment stations and model farms. Sheep and goats are raised extensively, while horned cattle and horses wceive less attention. The mountains of Bosnia are rich in minerals, some of which were worked in the days of the Romans. The mineral industry is chiefly in the hands of the Government. The chief mineral prod ucts are iron. copper, manganese, quicksilver, coal, and salt. The manufacturing industries are also in a backward state, and are confined chiefly to the production of coarse metal articles and some textiles for the home market. There are several extensive State tobacco factories. The exports
consist mainly of cereals, fruit, animals, and ani mal products. Since the Austro-Hungarian occu pation the transportation facilities of Bosnia )(Ave been considerahly extended and improved. In 1901 there were over 600 miles of railway lines, extending from Serajevo to all parts of the province. The highways and telegraph lines have also increased in length. The social and economic condition of Bosnia presents strange contrasts in the intermingling of institutions and customs handed down from the past with the innovations that reflect the spirit of modern progress.
In accordance with the agreement of 1878, the supreme eontrol of the province is nominally vested in the hands of the Sultan of Turkey, but the immediate administration is directed by the Bosnian Bureau, tinder the supervision of the :Minister of Finance of Austria-Hungary. The provincial government is divided into the four departments of internal affairs, finance, justice, and public works. For administrative purposes Bosnia is divided into 5 districts and 43counties, administered by separate officials, with theassist ance of representative councils. The annual bud get amounts to a little over 40,000.000 kronen ($8,120,000). The Austro-Hungarian Govern ment maintains an army of about 20,000 men. Military service is compulsory- for every able bodied male for a period of three years. Educa tion is free, but not compulsory, and, although the number of schools, as well as the standard of instruction, has been raised since theAustro-llun garian occupation, education is still very back ward, and a large proportion of the population is illiterate. The population of Bosnia and Herze govina in 1895 was 1,591,036, against 1,336,091 in 1SS5. According to religion, they were di vided as follows: Greek Orthodox. 42.94 per cent.: Mohammedans, 34.99 per cent.; Homan Catholics, 21.31 per cent.: Jews. 0.52 per cent. The inhabitants, Bosniaks and llerzegovinians. belong to the Serb branch of the Slavic race, with stature for soldiers of 1.710 metres. In the ne cropolis of Glasime. with its 20,000 tumuli, were found crania which show that the dolichocephalic Hallstatt race was once as pronounced here as is the opposite type to-day. With a few un important exceptions, the people speak the Serb language. The Mohammedans. who call themselves Turks, are descendants of Sla vic Christians converted to Islam during the Mohammedan conquest. and do not adhere so closely to Islam as the Mohammedan inhabitants of the Turkish provinces. The Turkish ele ment of the population is insignificant. There is an Albanian element in the south. Capital Set-micro, with a population of about 3S,000.