CU'FIC WRITING. See KUFIC WRITING.
CUI, CtsAR ANTONOVITCII (1835—). A Russian composer and military engineer, born at Vilna. Ile studied at the gymnasium, where his father, a survivor of Napoleon's army of inva sion. taught French. After studying music with Moniuszko (q.v.) for some six months at Vilna, lie entered the School of Engineering and the Engineering Academy at Saint Petersburg, be coming subsequently professor of fortification in several military academies. Among his pupils have been several grand dukes, the famous Skobeleff, and Nicholas H. During the Russo Turkish War he was sent to examine the forti fications on the Danube. His report. Tour Notes of on Engineering Officer from the Theatre of Military Operations in European Turkey, was translated into several languages. and attracted considerable attention. Among his text-books the hest-known are: A Short Manual of Field Fortification (7th ed. 1894). and A Short ifistorical Cl etch of Permanent Fortification ( Ins musical studies he continued with Balakireff (q.v.), making his delmt with a Scherzo in F major for orchestra (1859).
His opera 7/u' Prisoner of Caucasus (1857-58) the comic opera The Mandarin's Son were performed privately. and exhibited no depart ures from established tradition. In 1864 he became musical critic of the Saint Petersburg Gazette. He championed the theories of the Young Russian school, attacking the conserva tive attitude of the critics, rejudging estab lished reputations, subjecting everything to a keen and analysis. He received the
nickname 'Musical Nihilist,' and his opera Wil liam Roteliff (1869), based on Heine s drama, and embodying the new theories of 'melodic recitative,' met with severe criticism. Angelo (1870), based on Victor Hugo's drama, carried the theories even further, and met with a similar fate. In 1883 he rewrote The Prisoner of Caucasus. adding a new act, and the work had considerable success, Le Flibustier (1894), words by Richepin, was successful at the Paris Op6ra Comique, and The Saracen was favorably received in 1S99. His numerous songs, both to Russian and to French words, are veritable gems, while his pieces for solo instruments and for chorus enjoy great vogue. He was never fond of orchestration, and is far behind his Russian colleagues in that line, but the sin cerity and passion of his works are unique. Few can equal him in delineating love in all its varied aspects. As a critic, in Russian periodicals and the French Revue et Gazette Musicale, Cul enjoys an enviable reputation. his La Musique en Russie (Paris, 1880) is the only sketch of Russian music written with au thority, even though it is at times marred by the author's :esthetic views. The Russian Lied (1896) is a detailed study of all important Rus sian song-writers, with careful reference to both music and text. Consult: Countess de Mercy .Argenteau. Cjsar rui (Paris. 1SRS) Pougin, Essai historique sur in musique en Russie (Turin, 1897).