CLEMANGES, NICOLAS DE (e.1360-c.1434). A French theologian—one of the ablest Roman Catholic theologians of the Aliddle Ages. He was educated in Paris, where he studied theology under Pierre d'Ailly. He was chosen rector of the university in 1303. and Ivas esteemed, with his teacher and Derson, the glory of the institution. He was an ardent advo cate of reform in the Church, wrote strongly against the immoral lives of many of the higher clergy, and labored, with great pertinacity, to heal the schism then existing—espeeially by preventing the election of another Antipope in place of the so-called Clement VII. But when Pedro de Luna (q.v.) was elected by the Avi gnon Cardinals in 1394, taking the name of Benedict X111., Clemanges became his secretary. thinking that in this position he could render a service to the divided Church. When. in 1407, it eame to a breach between Benedict and the French Court. Clcquangcs, unjustly suspected of being the author of the bull of exeonuninfication launched by Benedict against the King. left
Avignon, and went first to his canonry at Lan gres, and then into the retirement of the Carthusian monasteries at Valprofonds and Fontaine-du-Bosc. llere he pursued his studies, and produced several important works upon the study of the Bible. and upon the corruptions then existing in the Church. In 1415 he exer cised a great. influence on the Council of Con stance. though never present in person, and made a strong plea for Church and purity. In 1425 he returned to Paris and to his lectures on rhetoric and theology in the university. and there died, probably in 1434. His collected works, with a life by J. 51. Lydius. appeared at Leyden in 1613. The often-quoted Dr Puha: • sell de Corrupt() Errlesicr while' frequently attributed to Clemanges, is demon strably not his. Consult Mintz, Vicolus dr CIt' munges. sa Cie et sr..) (Wits ( St ras.shurg. 8-113).