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New International Encyclopedia, Volume 5

Federal Courts
Federal Courts. ( A 1 Sec. I Of Art. Iii. Of The Federal Constitution Declares That "the Judicial Power Of The United States Shall He Vested In One Supreme Court. And In Such In Ferior Courts As Congress May From Time To Time Establish." By The Second Section Of The ...

Ferdinand 1810 73 David
David, Ferdinand (1810-73). A German Violinist, Born In Hamburg. For Two Yea Rs Lie Was A Pupil Of Spohr, In Cassel, Studying At The Same Time With Hauptinann. In 1525, When Only Fifteen Years Old, He Made His First. Appearance As A Violinist At The Gewandhaus In Leipzig. During 1827 ...

Finance
Finance. The History Of The Currency Of Cuba Does Not Differ Much From The Lamentable Record Made By Nearly All Of The Spanish-ameri Can Countries As Well As Spain. It Is The Story Of Desperate, But In The End Of Vain, Attempts To Make The Fiat Of Government Pass For ...

Finance Government
Government, Finance, Etc. A New Charter Was Obtained In 1s91, In Which The Distinction Between Executive And Legislative Functions Was Clearly Drawn, The New Plan Being Known As The Federal System. But A New Municipal Code Was Enacted By The Ohio Legislature October 22.1902. It Provides For A City Council ...

Flavics Constantine I
Constantine I., Flavics Valextrs Remus Constantinus, Surnamed 'the Great.' A Roman Emperor (a.d. 306-337). He Was Born Soon After A.d. 270, At Naissus, In Mtesia. He Was The Eldest Son Of Constantius Chlorus. And First Distinguished Himself By His Military Talents Under Diocletian, In That Monarch's Famous Egyptian Expedition (296) ...

Formation Of Reefs
Formation Of Reefs. The Great Masses Of Coral Rock Have Been Built Up By The Continuous Growth Of Various Genera And Species Of Corals, Which Secrete Carbonate Of Lime Dissolved In The Sea-water. The Coral Polyps Flourish Only Under Certain Conditions; Their Growth Requires Clear, Warm, Salt Water, An Abundance ...

Forms
Forms. Fossil Remains Of Conifers, Consisting. Of Branches, Leaves, Cones, And Seeds, Are Found In Great Abundance In The Most Recent Of The Mesozoic And In The Tertiary Formations, And Have Been Referred To Genera Still Living On Account Of Their Resemblance To Them. But Only When Such Determination Is ...

Fossil Crinoids
Fossil Crinoids. About 175 Genera And 2000 Species Of Fossil Crinoids Are Known. They Appear First As Very Simple Forms In Ordovician Rocks, And They Increase Rapidly. Becoming Important Elements Of The Faunas In The Silurian, Devonian, And Carboniferous Periods. In Some Regions They Were Exceedingly Abundant, For Their Fossil ...

Fossil Forms
Fossil Forms. The Ccelenterata Comprise Some Of The Oldest Fossils Found In The Lower Cambrian Rocks (arclneocyathus And Ethmophyl Lum) ; They Increase Rapidly In Variety, And Tained Already. Early In The Silurian, Great Portance:is Ock-builders In The Reef-build Ing Cora Is (see Coral. Island; Limestone; Dolomite), Which Persisted Through ...

Fossil Forms_2
Fossil Forms, Among The Fossil Corals Only Those Belonging To The Anthozoa, Are Of Importance, Those Of The Hydromeduste Either Not Appearing Until The Mesozoic, And Then But Sparingly (for Fossil Hydroeorallime And Tubularire, See Cceles Terata ) Or Not Being Clearly Recognized As To Their Systematic Position And Only ...

Fossil Forms_3
Fossil Forms. \\ Ith The Exception Of Some Doubtful Genera (gitocragnon, Etc.) From Later Paleozoic Rocks, No Unmistakable Fossil Crabs Are Known From Deposits Antedating Those Of Mesozoic Age. Fossil Crabs First Appear In The Jurassic, Where Occur Members Of The Family Dromiacea, Much Smaller Than The Modern Species, Such ...

Fossil Forms_4
Fossil Forms. Fossil Ancestors Of The Croco Dilians Are Known From Rocks As Old As Those Of The Triassic, And They Are Found Throughout The Later Rocks Of Jurassic, Cretaceous, And Tertiary Time. The More Primitive Forms, Comprising The Totally Extinct Sub-order Parasuchia, Are Repre Sented By Belodon, From The ...

Frances Burney 17521840
D'arblay, Frances Burney ( 1752 1840). An English Novelist. She Was A Daugh Ter Of Charles Burney. A Musician, And Was Born At King's Lynn, June 13, 1752. Eight Years Later The Burneys Removed To London. At The Famous Musical Assemblies Given By Her Father, Miss Burney Saw, From The ...

Francis 1743 1811 Dana
Dana, Francis ( 1743-1811). An Ameri Can Statesman And Jurist. He Was Horn In Charlestown, Mass.; Graduated At Harvard In 1762; Soon Became Prominent At The Bar. And. As A Whig, In Colonial Politics: And From 1776 To 1780 Was A Member Of The Executive Council Of Massachusetts. He Was ...

Francisco Vasquez Coronado
Coronado, Francisco Vasquez ( ? E.1549). A Spanish Explorer. He Came To The New World About 1535, And, By Marrying Dofia Beatriz, The Daughter Of Estrada, The Royal Treas Urer For New Spain, Secured Preferment At The Viceregal Court In Mexico. He Was Appointed Governor Of The Province Of New ...

Frying
Frying. Frying Is Cooking By Immersion In Hot Fat At A Temperature From 350° To 3s0° F. The Upper Limit Of Temperature Answers In The Case Of Croquettes Or Cecils That Are Covered With Beaten Egg; The Gentler Heat Is Best Adapted To Such Delicate Articles As Batters, Fritters, Crul ...

General
General. The Most Important Vestment To Be Mentioned Under This Head Is The Cope, A Wide Cloak Of Silk Or Other Costly Material Reaching Nearly To The Feet And Fastened In Front By A Clasp Called The Morsc, And Having A Semi Circular Hood At The Back. While It Is ...

Geological Distribution
Geological Distribution. The Accompanying Table Indicates In A Rough Way The Larger Classi Fication Of The Crustacea And The Distribution And Expansion Of The Various Subdivisions In Past Geologic Times. It Shows That Certain Types, Es Pecially The More Primitive, Played More Impor Tant Rides In The Early Ages Than ...

Geology
Geology. The Mountain Regions Here Have Long Been The Seat Of Great Volcanic Activity. The Chief Formations In The Central Range Are Granite. Gneiss, Basalt, And Eruptive Rocks, While In The Eastern Range Cretaceous Formations Pre Dominate. The Geological Structure Of The West Ern Cordillera Has Not Yet Been Fully ...

George Armstrong 1839 76 Custer
Cus'ter, George Armstrong (1839-76). An American Soldier, Born In New Runlet', Harrison County, Ohio. Lie Graduated At \vest Point In 1861, Was Assigned As A Second Lieutenant To The Fifth United States Cavalry, And Arrived At The Front On The Day Of The First Battle Of Bull Bun. Lie Served ...

George Crabbe
Crabbe, George An English Poet. He Was Born December 24, 1754, At Aldeburgh, Suffolk, Where His Father Was Col Lector Of Salt Duties. Crabbe Showed Early A Love For Books, With A Bias Toward Poetry. After Some Schooling, Lie Was Apprentieed First To A Village Doctor And Then To A ...

George Ticknor 1812 94 Curtis
Curtis, George Ticknor (1812-94). A Dis Tinguished American Jurist And Writer On The Constitutional History Of The United States, He Was Born In Watertown, Mass.; Graduated At Harvard In 832 ; Was Admitted To The Bar In 1836, And Began The Practice Of The Law In Worcester, Mass. In The ...

George William 1824 92 Curtis
Curtis, George William (1824-92). An American Critic, Essayist, And Publicist, Horn In Providence, 11. I., February 24, 1824. After A Few Years At School He Began Life As A Clerk, In New York, Joined The Brook Farm Community At West Roxbury, Mass., In 1842, Went Thence. After Eighteen Months. To ...

Georges Ben Jamin Eugene
Clemenceau, Georges Ben Jamin Eugene (1841 — ). A French Politician, Born At Monilleron-en-pareds, In The Depart Ment Of Vendee, September 28. 1841. While Studying Medicine In Paris, Clemenceau En Gaged In Political Intrigues. And His Extreme Republican Views Cost Him His Privileges As A Student. He Went Abroad For ...

Governai Ent
Governai Ent. The Constitution Of Cuba Was Adopted By The Constitutional Convention, On February 21, 1901. It Provides For A Republican Form Of Government, And, In Its Main Provisions, Differs But Slightly From The Constitution Of The United States. The President, Who Must Bo Either A Native Cuban Or A ...

Government
Government. Colombia Has Practically Had A Republican Form Of Government Since 1819. The Present Colombian Constitution (the Sev Enth Since 1821) Dates From 1886, And. In Con Trast With The Preceding Instruments, Which Rec Ognized The Sovereignty Of The Constituent States, It Provides For A Very Strong Centralization Of Power. ...

Government_2
Government. The, Present Constitution Was Approved By The People Of The State In Isis. Twenty-nine Amendments Have Since Been Adopt Ed. An Amendment Originates In The House Of Representatives, Is Approved By A Two-thirds Vote Of Each Ilouse At The Following Session, And In Turn By A Majority Vote Of ...

Granular Conjunctivitis Or
Granular Conjunctivitis. Or Trachoma, Pop Ularly Known As 'granular Lids.' This Is A Con Tagious Affection Of The Eye, Conveyed By Means Of The Secretion. The Contagion Is Most Fre Quently Carried By Towels. Etc., Used In Common By Many Persons, And So The Disease Is Found Chiefly In Crowded ...

Growth Of Commerce
Growth Of Commerce. The Repeated Inva Sions Of Italy By The Goths And Huns Gave Rise To The Founding, For Defense And For Trade, Of The City Of Venice, About The Middle Of The Fifth Een Tury—a City That For More Than A Thousand Years Stood Foremost In The Trade ...

Gustave 1819 77 Courbet
Courbet, Gustave (1819-77). A French Landscape, Figure, And Portrait Painter, Founder Of The Modern Realist School. Lie Was Born At Ornans (franche-comte) On June 10, 1819, Of Wealthy Peasant Parents. His First Instruc Tion In Art Was Acquired At His Home Under Vlageoulet, A Pupil Of David. In His Twentieth ...

Gustave Paul 1823 1900
Cluseret, Gustave Paul (1823 1900). A French Soldier And Communist, Horn In Paris. He Was Educated At Saint-cyr, Distin Guished Himself During The Insurrection Of 1848 In Paris, Served In The Crimean War And In Africa Against The Kabyles, And Became A Cap Tain In 1855. In 1858 He Resigned ...

Hartley Coleridge
Coleridge, Hartley An English Poet, Born At Clevedon, Somersetshire, The Eldest Son Of S. T. Coleridge. He Studied At Oxford, And Was Elected To A Fellowship At Oriel College, From Which He Was Removed By The Authorities In 1826 On The Charge Of Intemper Ance. For Two Years He Resided ...

Henry 1777 1852 Clay
Clay, Henry ( 1777-1852 ) . An American Statesman, Known, From His Skill In Devising Com Promises, As The 'great Pacificator.' He Was Born April 12, 1777, In A Neighborhood Called "flue Slashes,' In Hanover County, Va. His Father, A Baptist Clergyman In Humble Circumstances, Died When Henry Was Only ...

Henry Thomas Cockburn
Cockburn, Henry Thomas, Lord (1779 1854). A Scottish Advocate And Judge. He Was Born In Edinburgh In 1779, And Was Educated At The High School Of Edinburgh And Afterwards At Edinburgh University. He Was Called To The Scottish Bar In 1800, And Seven Years Later Was Appointed One Of The ...

Historical Development
Historical Development. Among The Prede Cessors Of The Clock, As Time-measurers, Are The Sun-dial. The Clepsydra Or Water-clock, And The Hour-glass. (see Dial: Clepsydra; Hour Glass.) The Clepsydra Vas A Graduated Trans Parent Vase, In Which Water Trickled Through A Bole In The Bottom At Such A Rate That The ...

History
History. In 1795 The Connecticut Land Com Pany Bought From Connecticut A Large Part Of That State's Western Reserve (q.v.), And In The Following Year Sent Out A Party Under Gen. Moses Cleaveland To Survey Their Purchase. Cleave Land Selected The Mouth Of The Cuyahoga As The Site For A ...

History And Use
History And Use. The Value Of Coal Does Not Seem To Have Been Known To The Ancients, Nor Is It Well Known At What Time It Began To Be Used For Fuel. Some Say That It Was Used By The Ancient Britons; At All Events, It Was An Article Of ...

History_2
History. The Northern Coasts Of Colombia Were Visited By Ojeda And Vespucci In 1499. Three Years Later Columbus Explored A Section Of The Country, And Attempted To Found The First Spanish Eolony On The American Mainl:uul. Itc Tween 1511 And 1517, Balboa And Pedrarias Ex Plored And Settled Both Coasts ...

History_3
History. Prehistoric Remains, Consisting Of Numerous Cave-dwellings And The Ruins Of Exten Sive Pueblos. Similar In Character To Those Dis Cotered In New Mexico And Arizona, Have Been Found In Southern Colorado. In The Second Half Of The Eighteenth Century A Numher Of Expedi Tions Into The Limits Of The ...

History_4
History. The Congo Free State Was Estab Lished As A Neutral Independent Sovereignty In 1884. In 1876 King Leopold Ii. Of Belgium Had Organized, With The Cooperation Of The Lead Ing African Explorers And The Support Of Several European Governments. The International African Association (q.v.), For The Promotion Of African ...

History_5
History. In 1614 Adrian Block, A Native Of Holland, Discovered And Explored The Connecticut River, Hut It Was Nut Till 1633 That The Dutch Of New Amsterdam Began A Trading Post At Suek Iaug (hartford). Two Years Earlier The Soil From Narragansett Bay To The Paeifie Ocean Was Granted By ...

History_6
History. Costa Rica Was First Visited, And Probably Named, By Columbus In 1502. And Set Tled Permanently About 1530. It Formed A Part Of The Audieneia And Captain-aeneraley Of Guatemala Till 1s21. With Other Central Ameri Can States, Costa Rica Was A Part Of Mexico Till 1823. When The Proclamation ...

History_7
History. To The Ancients Crimea Was Known As /'liersouesmrs Tuurica, From The Tauri, A Moun Tain Tribe Of The South, Who Are Supposed To Have Been The Remnants Of A Cimmerian People Driven Out By The Scythians In The Seventh Cen Tury N.c. In The Sixth Century B.c. The Greeks ...

History_8
History. The 'pearl,' Or 'queen Of The An Tilles,' The 'ever-faithful Isle,' As The Spaniards Used To Term Cuba ( From The Attitude Of The Cu Bans At The Dine Of The Napoleonic Overthrow Of The Spanish Bourbons), Was Discovered By Columbus During His First Voyage, On October 28, 1492. ...

Indigo Dyes
Indigo Dyes. By Far The Most Important Of These Is Indigo Itself, A Vegetable Dye Obtained From A Tropical Plant Cultivated In India Since The Earliest Times. The Sap Of This Plant, When Fermented Under Conditions Excluding Oxygen, Yields Indigo White, A Soluble Material Having The Formula If The Fermentation ...

Individual
Individual Factons. Finally The Individual Factors Of Crime Should Be Briefly Considered. They Have Been Carefully Studied By A Score Of Scien Tists, Beginning With Lombroso, The Founder Of Criminology, Who Was Disposed At First To Over Look All But The Individual Factors. Scs.—in All Civilized Nations Women Are Less ...

International Copyright
International Copyright. As Already Stated, Copyright Is A Matter Of Only National And Local Concern. The Granting Of Copyright By One Na Tion To The Productions Of Citizens Of Another Has Resulted As A Slow Development From Influences That First Began To Have Effect About The Begin Ning Of The ...

Invention Or Cross
Cross, Invention Or Ftxmnu Or The Name Of The Church Festival Commemorative Of The Finding Of The Cross Upon Which Christ Died By The Empress Helena, The Mother Of Constan Tine, In The Year 326. Related By Socrates (ece/esia.stical History, 1. Xvii.), Who Wrote About .130, The Story Is This: ...

Isaac Adolphe 1796 1850
Cremieux, Isaac .adolphe (1796 1850). A French Statesman And Philanthropist. Born At Nimes, Of Jewish Parents, April 30. 1796. He Studied Law, And Was Admitted To The Bar At Aix In 1817. About 1830 He Went To Paris, Where He Soon Became Famous As An Advocate, Particularly In The Defense ...

Jacob Dolson 1828 1900cox
Cox, Jacob Dolson ( 1828-1900) . An Ameri Can Soldier, Politician, Educator, And Military Historian. He Was Born In Montreal, Canada, Was Taken By His Parents To New York City In 1829, Graduated At Oberlin College In 1851, Taught School At Warren, Ohio, In 1852, And There In The Following ...

James Dwight 1813 95 Dana
Dana, James Dwight (1813-95). An American Geologist And One Of The Eminent Scien Tists Of The Last Century. He Was Born In Utica, N. Y. His Father Was A Successful Business Man Of New England Birth, And His Mother Was Har Riet Dwight, Daughter Of Seth Dwight, Of Wil Liamsburg, ...

James Fen More 1789 1851
Cooper, James Fen !more ( 1789-1851). An American Novelist, Born At Burlington, N. J., September 15, 1789. His• Father Came Of Good English And Quaker Stock: His Mother, Elizabeth Fenimore. Was A Swede And Also Of Quaker An Cestry. Was The Eleventh Of Twelve Children, And In His Second Year ...

James Mason Crafts
Crafts, James Mason (1839—). An Ameri Can Chemist. He Was Born In Boston, And Re Ceived His Education At The Lawrence Scientific School Of Harvard. In 1859 He Went To Ge• Many, And Studied At The Academy Of Mines Of Freiberg And At The University Of Heidelberg. At The Latter ...

Jamin 1845 1902
Jamin ( 1845-1902). A French Painter, Born In Paris, June 10, 1s45. In 1866 He Obtained A Nmnicipal Prize Entitling Him To Free Instruction In The Eeole Des Beaux-arts, And He Was Besides This A Pupil Of Cabana In He Went To Morocco, Where He Painted A Series Of Oriental ...

Jeremy 1650 1726 Collier
Collier, Jeremy (1650-1726). A Non-juring English Clergyman, Born At Stow Qui, Or Quire, In Cambridgeshire, September 23, 1650. He Went To Cambridge In 1669, Took His Degree Of M.a. In 1676, And Entered The Ministry. At The Revolution Of Hiss He Plunged Into The Stormy Waters Of Controversy, His Ioeman ...

Johann Hein Dannecker
Dannecker, Johann Hein Ram Yon ( 1758-18411. A German Sculptor. Born Near Stuttgart, October 15. 1758. His Father, A Groom Of The Duke Of Wiirttemberg. Was Much Opposed To His Studying Art, But Through The Favor Of The Duke The Lad Was Educated In The Karlssehule At Ludwigsburg, Where He ...

John 1512 1600 Craig
Craig, John (1512-1600). A Preacher Of The Scottish Reformation. He Was Born In Aber Deenshire, And Educated At Saint Andrews. He Entered The Dominican Order, But Soon Fell Under The Suspicion Of Heresy, And Was Cast Into Prison. On His Release (1536) He Trav Eled On The Continent. And After ...

John 1766 1844 Dalton
Dalton, John (1766-1844). A Celebrated English Chemist And Natural Philosopher, Born At Eaglesfield, Near Coekermouth. In Cumber Land. Ile Received His Early Education In The School Of His Native Place, And, After 1781, In A Boarding-school Kept By A Relative In Kendal. Here His Love Of Mathematical And Physical Studies ...

John 1776 1837 Constable
Constable, John ( 1776-1837 ). An Eng Lish Landscape Painter, The Founder Of Modern Landscape Art. Ile Was Born On June 11, 1776, In East Bergholt, Suffolk, The Son Of A Wealthy Miller. His Father Intended Him For The Clergy, And Afterwards Tried Him As A Miller, But The Youth's ...

John Augustin 1838 99daly
Daly, John Augustin ( 1838-99). An• American Playwright And Theatrical Manager. He Was Born At Plymouth, N. C.. And Educated At Norfolk, Va., And In The Public Schools Of New York City. He Was Dramatic Critic For The Sunday Courier In 1859, And Held Similar Posi Tions On The Express, ...

John Curran
Curran, John Puttxor (1750-is17). An Irish Judge And Orator. Ile Was Born At New Market, Cork County, July 24. 1750. And Edu Cated At Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Was More Dissipated Than Studious. In 1773 He Went To London And Studied Law Assiduously At The 'iddle Temple. He Was ...

John Singleton Copley
Copley, John Singleton, Lard Lyndhurst (1772-1803). A British Lawyer And Statesman, Four Times Lord Chancellor Of England. Lie Was The Son Of J. S. Copley, R.a.. And Was Born In Boston, Mass., May 21. 1772. While Yet An Infant, His Father Removed To England For The Practice Of His Art. ...

John Wilson 1780 1857 Croker
Croker, John Wilson (1780-1857). An English Writer And Politician. Ile Was Horn At Galway, Ireland. Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, He Entered Lincoln's Inn As A Student In 1800. And Two Years Later Was Called To The Irish Bar. Id 1804 He Published Familiar Epistles, A Clever Satire In Verse ...

Kingdom
Kingdom. Next To The Coal-fields Of The United States, Those Of The United Kingdom Are Of The Greatest Economic Importance. With In The Limits Of England, Scotland, And Wales There Are More Than Twenty Areas Underlain By Seams Of Anthracite, Bituminous, And Cannel Coal. The Largest Of These Areas Is ...

Lake Como
Como, Lake. (it. Logo Di Como, Or It Loth), Ger. Comer See, Anc. Locus Lurius, Praised By Ergil (georg. Ii., 159). The Most Beautiful And Celebrated Of The Italian Lakes. Situated In Lom Bardy, At The Western Foot Of The Bergantese Alps, 30 Miles North Of Milan (map; Italy, D ...

Lake Constance
Constance, Lake (named From The City Of Constance, Ger. Konstanz, Or Kostnitz, Lat. Constantio: German Bodensee, Formerly Bodem See, Bodmensee, Bodmanscc, From The Castle Of Bodman On Its Shores, 31l. Locus Podamieus, Mare Podanum, Lat. Locus Brigantines, Locus Cenetus Et Acronius). A Lake Of Glacial Ori Gin. Situated At The ...

Law Of Continuity
Continuity, Law Of. A Principle First Formulated By Leibnitz (q.v.), Which Is Expressed In The Latin Sentence, Nature Non Tacit Saltum ("nature Does Not Make Sudden Leaps"). It Is Opposed To The Principle Of Discreteness, Which Asserts That All Differences Are Hard And Fixed, And That Differences Of Kind Are ...

List Of Colors
List Of Colors. The Following Are Some Of The Best Known Commercial Coal-tar Colors, Their Molecular Formulas, And The Principal Methods Employed In Their Manufacture. Aldehyde Aniline Green Below. Aniline Black, Made By The Oxidation Of Aniline With Mineral Salts. Aniline Blue (triphenyl - Rosaniline Hydro Chloride), C„h„n„cl. Made By ...

Literature
Literature. The First Danish Book Is A Treat Ise On Medicine By Henrik Harpestreng. Who Died In 1244. The First Danish Law Dates From 1386. But The First Distinctively Literary Writings In The Language Are The Chivalric Ballads, Kjaempe Riser, Which Must Have Been Composed From 1300 To 1500, Though ...

Lorenzo 1400 1535 Costa
Costa, Lorenzo (1400-1535). An Italian Painter, Born In Ferrara. He Was A Pupil Of Cosimo Tura And Ercole Roberti In Ferrara. And Perhaps Of Francesco Costa. Vasari Says He Also Studied The Works Of Gozzoli And Lippi In Florence. After His Return To Ferrara He Painted Several Works Now Destroyed. ...

Louis Joseph De Bourbon
Louis Joseph De Bourbon, Prince De Conde (1736-1818), The Son Of The Duke De Bourbon, Was Born In Paris, August 9, 1736. He Distin Guished Himself In The Seven Years' War At Iminden, Gemmingen, And Johannisberg. At The Outbreak Of The Revolution He Showed Himself A Strong Supporter Of The ...

Lower An
Lower An I Mals. Constipation In The Lower Animals Depends, As In Loan, On Imperfect Secre Tion From, Or Motion Of, The Intestinal Walls. In The Horse It Is Usually Accompanied By Colic Qx.) , And When Long Continued Leads To Enteri Tis (q.v.). The Appropriate Remedies Are Soap And ...

Manufacture
Manufacture. T/1 Preparing The Oil For Medi•inal Purposes, Only Perfectly Healthy Livers Should Be Used And The Green-colored (or Spot Ted), Diseased Livers Rejected. In Former Times The Oil Was Obtained As Follows. The Fishermen Would Stow Away The Livers In Barrels, Which Were Kept Unopened Till The End Of ...

Manufactures
Manufactures. Connecticut Is Notably A Manufacturing State, 19.5 Per Cent. Of The Total Population Being Engaged In That Industry. Though One Of The Smallest States Of The Union, It Ranks Eleventh (1900) In The Importance Of Its Manufactures. Influential Among The Factors Which Have Developed These Interests Have Been The ...

Marccs Crassus
Crassus, Marccs ( ?—n.c. 53). A Roman Triumvir. He Was A Zealous Partisan Of Sulla, And Rendered Him Efficient Service In The Battle At. The Colline Grate. Ex. S3, Which Sealed The. Fate Of The Marians. As Praq Or Lie Crushed The Revolt Of The Gladiators Under Sparta Us In ...

Mercantile Consul
Consul, Mercantile. An Agent Appointed By One Nation To Reside Within The Territory Of Another For The Special Purpose Of Promoting Commercial Intercourse Between Them. The Earli Est Prototype Of This Official Is The Ancient Greek Procemens, Whose Functions Were To Represent His Country, And To Protect Its Citizens While ...

Methods Of Cremation
Methods Of Cremation. Among The Practical Methods Of Cremation Which Have Been Attempted May Be Mentioned, In The First Place, The Experi Ments Of Dr. Polli At The Milan Gas-works, And Those Of Professor Brunetti, Who Exhibited An Apparatus At The Vienna Exhibition Of 1873, And Described His Results In ...

Miles 1488 1565 Coverdale
Cov'erdale, Miles (1488-1565). An Eng Lish Bible Translator. He Was Born At Coverdale, In Yorkshire. Was Educated At Cambridge, Was Or Dained In 1.314 At Norwich, And Became The Same Year An Augustinian At Cambridge. By 1526, However, His Religious Opinions Had So Far Changed That He Left His Convent ...

Military And Naval Colors
Colors, 'military And Naval. The Term Applied To The National Flag Or Ensign Wherever It Is Displayed And Also To Other Flags, Banners, Or Guidons Carried By Military Bodies, And Usu Ally Indicating Their Designation. Emblems, Banners, Or Similar Devices Have Been In Use Among Soldiers And Sailors From Remotest ...

Mining
Mining. Colorado Is Best Known As A Mining State, Ranking First In The Mining Of Precious Metals, And Surpassed Only By Pennsylvania In The Total Mineral Output. This Is Due Largely To The State's Great Productivity Of Gold And Sil Ver Ores. Colorado Produces Twice As Much Of These Two ...

Modern European Courts
Modern European Courts. When The Admin Istration Of Justice Was Reorganized By The Abso Lute Monarchy, The New Royal Courts Were Mod Eled On The Ecclesiastical Courts. Professional Or 'learned' Judges Replaced The Medireval Lay Judges; The Judge Or Bench Of Judges Rendered Decision Both Upon The Law And The ...

Monastic Costume
Monastic Costume. The Principle Of Uniformity Of Dress To Mark Those Who Lived A Common Life Was Adopted Even Among The Early Monks Of The Egyptian Deserts. The Character Of The Eastern Religious Costumes Was Usually, As Far As Can Be Determined From The Vague Descriptions Of Early Writers. Such ...

Movable Dams
Movable Dams Arc Those Which Can Be Lowered Cr Raised At Will, According To The Stage Of Water In The River. They Are Generally Aids To Naviga Tion, Placed At Stretches Where There Are Shallows Or Rapids, But Where Permanent Structures To Raise The Water-level Might Do Damage By Causing ...

Mtlitart Courts
Courts, Mtlitart. Military Courts Are Dis Tinguished From Civil Courts Both In Their Organi Zation And Procedure. They Are Divided Into Courts-martial And Courts Of Inquiry, Which In Their Various Forms Are Described Below. Cot:i:ts-martial ( Fr., Military Courts) Are Statutory Institutions For The Enforcement Of Order And Discipline In ...

National Convention
Convention, National (fr. Convention Nationale). The Third Assembly Of The Deputies Of The French People Chosen After 1789, And The Which Assumed The Government Of France On The Overthrow Of The Throne In 1792. After The Legislative Assembly Had Decreed The Suspen Sion Of The King, August 10, 1792, It ...

Nicolas De Clemanges
Clemanges, Nicolas De (e.1360-c.1434). A French Theologian—one Of The Ablest Roman Catholic Theologians Of The Aliddle Ages. He Was Educated In Paris, Where He Studied Theology Under Pierre D'ailly. He Was Chosen Rector Of The University In 1303. And Ivas Esteemed, With His Teacher And Derson, The Glory Of The ...

Oddone Colonna
Oddone Colonna Was Pope From 1417 To 1431. See Martin V.—pa Bri Zi 0 Colon Na Jai/le D Charles Viii. Of France In The Invasion Of Naples In 1494, But Soon Went Over To The Enemy And Was Made Grand Constable Of Naples. He De Fended Capita Against The Forces ...

Old Persian
Old Persian. The Most Simple Of All The Cuneiform Systems, And The One Which, As Stated Above, Gave The Key To All The Others. Is The Old This Is Employed From The Sixth To The Fourth Century N.c. In The Tablets Of The Achpe Menians, Darius The Great, Xerxes, Artaxerxes ...

In Plants Color
Color, In Plants. The Great Majority Of Plants Show Distinct Coloration, Especially In Aerial Or Aquatic Organs. The Absence Of Color Is An Index Of Parasitic Or Saprophytic Life, But It Must Be Borne In Mind That Many Parasites And Saprophytes Are Highly Colored. The Most Common Coloring Matter In ...

Of Cy Pres
Cy-pres, (of., As Near). The Prin Ciple Of English And American Law Whereby A Testamentary Gift Which Cannot Take Effect In The Precise Manner Intended By The Testator Is Given An Effect As Nearly As Possible Like That Which Was Intended. The Doctrine Has Been Ap Plied In Two Classes ...

Or Acute Purulent Conjunctivitis
Acute Purulent Conjunctivitis Of Adults, Or Gono•rkrul Ophthalmia. This Differs From Catarrhal Conjunctivitis In The Severity Of Its Symptoms And In Its Exciting Causes. It Is A Violent Form Of Inflammation Of The Conjunctiva; Is Accompanied With A Thick. Purulent Discharge On The Second Or Third Day, And Is Very ...

Or Ciudad De Cura
Cura, Or Ciudad De Cura. A City Of Venezuela. Formerly Capital Of The State Of :miranda. Situated Near Lake Valencia, 1600 Feet Above Sea-level (map: Venezuela, D 2). Owing To Its Position Near The Banos Of The Guarico, It Has Considerable Trade As The Centre Of A Cotton Growing, Agricultural, ...