LIVERPOOL. The advance of this most important commercial town has had few parallels in the world's history. In 1650 it is said there were only 15 ships belonging to the port. Towards the middle of the next cen tury three docks were constructed for the convenience of the shipping employ ed in the African and West Indian trades.' In 1761 more than half the African slave trade was carried on by the merchants of Liverpool. From the settlement of the cotton manufacture in Lancashire, Liverpool has become the port where the great bulk of the raw material of the manufacture is received, and whence the exports of manufactured goods are chiefly made to all parts of the world. The cotton imported into Liverpool is more than six sevenths of the whole quantity imported into Great Britain. Still more recently, and espe cially since the employment of steam-vessels for the conveyance of merchandize, this port has enjoyed a very large proportion of the trade between England and Ireland, for the prosecution of which it is particularly well situated.
The magnificent docks of Liverpool, un equalled perhaps in the world, are noticed under DOCKS. The full number is now 21 docks, 2 half-tide docks, 8 graving docks and 4 basins. They are capable of containin; 1500 sail. The annual income of the dock is about 300,0001., and the charge abou 280,0001.
The receipt of customs duties in 1850 we 3,366,284/., against 3,472,202/. in 1849.
The growth of the trade of Liverpool been very rapid. In 1816 there were 6,881 vessels entered the docks, of 774,243 tom burden, and paying in dock dues 92,500/. whereas in 1850 there were 20,457 vessel: entered Liverpool, of 3,500,000 tons burden and paying 211,000/. dock dues.
Eight parts out of nine of all the Americar cotton brought to this country are shipped tt Liverpool. There have often, in recent years been 50,000 hogsheads of sugar, 20,000 barrel: and bags of coffee, and 10,000 puncheons o rum, brought to Liverpool in one year. It ha: been estimated that 50,000,000 cwts. of goodE have been shipped at the Liverpool docks in one year. As one among numberless illustra. tions, which might be given of the extent o1 Liverpool commerce, it has been stated that 27,000 cubic feet of logs of cedar for pencils have been in the docks at one time.
About two-fifths of the tonnage inwards and outwards are engaged in the trade with the United States of America. Liverpool keeps up a larger intercourse with Ireland than all the other English ports combined, and it has benefited more than any port in the kingdom (London alone excepted) from the application of steam power to navigation. Besides those which proceed to the United States and other foreign countries, steam ships of the first class proceed to and arrive from Dublin daily ; and it has communication more or less frequently with Drogheda, Belfast, Waterford, Newry, Londonderry, Glasgow, the Isle of . Man, Whitehaven, Beaumaris, Bangor, Menai Bridge, and Carnarvon. Most of the Irish emigrants come to Liverpool to embark.
The inland trade of Liverpool is much assisted by means of canals, the most im portant of which in extent is the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 128 miles long. The Mer sey and Irwell navigation, the Duke of Bridge water's Canal, and the Ellesmere Canal also connect Liverpool with the inland counties. Besides the various ramifications of the London and North Western Railway, there are now also the Liverpool and Bury Railway, and the Liverpool and Preston Railway.
One of the most interesting productions intended for the Great Exhibition, is a model of the commercial part of Liverpool, compri sing the whole of the docks, and the great foci of trade and commerce in the town. The frontage of the town is almost five miles long, from north to south. The scale of the model is eight feet to the mile. There is also, associated in some respects with this model, a collection formed (or forming) of all the chief products imported into Liverpool ; comprising a variety scarcely paralleled in any other British port. These two memorials of Liver pool greatness—the model and the collection of imports—will each occupy several hundred feet of space, and are intended to form a per manent exhibition at Liverpool after the grand but temporary display in London.