PORTUGAL. The agricultural produce of this country includes corn, Indian corn, rice, hemp, flax, honey, wax, plenty of fruit, espe cially excellent oranges and lemons, almonds, and abundance of good wine. The sea along the coasts and the rivers abound with fish, which is a great article of food with all classes. Sea-salt is collected in various places, particularly in the lagoon of Setubal. The sheep supply abundance of wool, of which some is equal to that of the Spanish merinos in fineness. Portugal has mines of copper, tin, and iron, of which only some of iron aro worked. The manufactured articles are coarse woollen cloths in Alentejo and Beira; linens in Minho, Beira, and Tras os Montes ; silks at Campo Grande, near Lisbon, and also at Oporto and Braganza; jewellery at Lisbon and Oporto. There are glass-works at Marinha Grande ; paper manufactories at Alemquer, Lisbon, and Guimaraens; potteries at Lisbon, Oporto, Coimbra, Baja, Estremoz, and Caldes; cotton manufactories at Alcobaga and Thomar; and tanneries in various parts.
The foreign trade is principally in the hands of English merchants. Most of the Portu guese wines and other produce are consumed in England; especially the wines, of which no less than nine-tenths of the quantity sold to European countries are sent to England; this results from the prevalent taste for Port wine in England. The quantity of wine ex ported to England in the year 1847 was 2,883,806 gallons. The wine-produce of 1850 has been lately stated to amount to: First class wines 34,226 pipes.
Second 18,008 Third 10,864 Fourth 12,346 ' 85,344 pipes.
Portugal holds a very humble position in respect to industry and commerce. There are no railways or canals ; the roads are bad ; and the rivers are navigable only in certain parts of the year. Yet there are not wanting indications of some revival of commercial spirit. The English Industrial Exhibition
has called forth the dormant energies of many manufacturers; the articles of Portuguese manufacture were exhibited at Lisbon before being sent to England ; the Government voted a sum to defray the expences of trans port; and a spirit of fair emulation was excited. A communication from Portugal:to one of the London journals, if correct in its statements, will shew that the last ten years have been years of progress in Portuguese industry : " Oporto, the depOt of our best wines, has likewise become the chief seat of our manu facturing industry. It is now a vast workshop, distinguished not only by the great power of its machinery, but by the humanizing occu pation of its people. A district almost wholly industrial adjoins Lisbon on the side next to the entrance of the port. Cavilha, in a few years, has raised twenty new factories. Portaligue thrives admirably in its industry. The credit of our Torres Novas linens improves un questionably. Wool, both Portuguese and foreign, is woven and dyed in different man ners in our factories. The brightness of the colours we use enhances the productions which in this process receive their perfecting finish. Our cotton printing establishments are advancing rapidly to perfection. The expen sive and colossal industry of cotton spinning and weaving is already founded in Portugal. Our iron foundries produce machinery capable of presenting in the market' solid and well finished productions. The first 'steam boilers, of Portuguese manufacture, are constructing in one of the Lisbon workshops. Cabinet making, cutlery, and other applications of labour to the raw material, are generally im proving very greatly, and all this progress has been made within little more than ten years."