SWEDEN. The climate and soil are less favourable to the growth of grain in Sweden than in most other parts of Europe. The principal objects of cultivation are rye, barley, oats, peas and wheat. The produce of pota toes increased from about 200,000 qrs. 1905.. to, shot 2,000,00a qrs. in 1840. Other objects of cultivation are hemp, flax, and tobacco; buckwheat, carraway seed, hops and madder. Cherries, apples, and pears, are abundant only in the southern districts ; cranberries and other berries abound in the northern districts. The forests are very large, coveting, altogether more than one-fourth of the whole of the surface of Sweden. The export of timber, though considerable, is not in proportion to the immense extent of the woods. The forests supply fire-wood, of which a great quantity is consumed, as Sweden has no useful coal. Large quantities of charcoal are also used in the mines and factories. Tar and pitch are extracted chiefly from the roots of pine trees, and are minor articles of export. Several kinds of coniferous trees and birch compose the greater part of these forests. Oak and beech grow only in the southern dis tricts. The seas of Sweden contain abundance of fish. Salmon abounds in almost all the rivers and lakes.
Sweden is rich in minerals. Gold is found on the table-land of Smaland, at Adelforss, but no mines are worked. Silver mines are worked at Sala, in Westeras Lan, and at some other places, and in Falu Lan. The annual produce of the copper-mines amounts to nearly 1000 tons; the richest mines are those at Falun in Falu Lan and at Otvidabeyg in Linkoping Lan. Lead mines are worked in i Westeras and in Falu. Iron-ore is found in nearly every district of Sweden, and there is no part where it is not worked more or less, with the exception of the plain of Sarnia, where it seems that no iron ore exists ; the best iron is obtained from the mines of Dan nemora in Upsala Lan. The annual produce of all the iron mines of Sweden amounts to more than 67,000 tons of bar iron. In Orebro Lan are rich mines of cobalt, which yield annually more than 600 tons ; this metal is found in several other parts of Sweden. At some places alum and vitriol are Obtained, but only in small quantities. Some bad brown coal is raised near Cape Kullen in Scania. Porphyry is got at Elfvedal, in the upper valley of the Dal-Elf, and marble in the mountains north of. Norrkoping.
Manufactures have been fostered in Sweden by a system of prohibitions and severe restrictions. The most important industrial establishments are confined to the large towns. Stockholm has largo sugar-refineries, cotton and silk factories, halyards, woollen-cloth mills, &T. Norrkoping is the chief centre of the woollen manufactures. Steam machinery and mill-work are manufactured in Motala, Stockholm, and Nykoping, which last has also large iron-foundries, TobaCco. is extensively manufactured in most of the large towns. Other products are paper, cotton-yarn, glass, morocco leather, printed cottons and linens, seed-oils, pottery and chinaware, linen, soap, sail-cloth, silk ribands, d:c. Goteborg has
important breweries, sugar-refineries, and sail-cloth factories. Very few of the articles named are exported from Sweden, and hone to any considerable amount; nor of many of the most important items is the supply suffi cient for the demand. The Swedish peasant is of necessity himself a handicraftsman and manufacturer ; and very few persons, compa ratively speaking, are exclusively devoted to technical trades. The most important articles of peasant industry are—the coarse woollen stuffs of Dalecarlia and West Gothland in which the country people are clad ; the linen of West Gothland and Helsingland, and the damasks and fine linens of Angermanland; the stockings, pottery, turnery, and woodwork of West Gothland and Schonen ; and the wooden clocks of Dalecarlia ; all of which enter largely into the internal trade of the country. Breweries and distilleries are to be found in most of the towns ; and most of the towns On the coast have ship-building yards, The internal commerce, which is consider able, in corn, salt, fish, whisky, bricks and tiles, linens, and other manufactured goods is facilitated by good roads and navigable rivers, and in winter by the whole country being covered with show— a circumstance which renders of goods in sledges easy and expeditious. The Swedes are much given to a seafaring life. Their vessels visit most of the countries contiguous to the Atlantic, and they are also employed in the carrying trade between other countries, espe cially' in the Mediterranean, and on the coasts of South America. The imports consist of fish from Not-Way ; butter, tallow, and sions from Finland ; hemp, flax and hemp seed, linseed oil, hides, tallow, and peltry from Russia; corn, Wool, cattle, and provisions from Denmark ; colonial produce, dye-stuffs, spices, and manufactured goods, from England and the Manse towns ; fruit, cattle, corn, and manufactured articles from Mecldenburg and Prussia ; wine, fruits, oil, and silk from France ; tropical fruits and salt Om important article, which Sweden does not produce) from Por tugal and Spain; colonial produce and dye stuffs, drugs, hides, tobacco, and rum, from America and the East Indies.
The principal articles of export are—bar and pig iron, nails and other wrought iron ; boards, planks, logs and spars, staves, tar ; some topper, brats, Mufti, manganese, paper, and linen and hempen fabrics. The value of the imports in 1844 amounted to 17,487,000 Swedish rix-dollars ; the value of the exports in the same year was 21,080,000 rix-dollars. In that year 5115 vessels entered Swedish harbours, 3677 of which were Swedish, and 839 Norwegian ; the mercantile marine of Sweden numbered 040 vessels, 738 of which, with 139,990 tons burthen, were engaged in the foreign trade.
In 1850, of Swedish and Norwegian vessels, 1071 entered ports of Great Bri tain, with an aggregate burthen' of 283,001 tons.
The value of the British and Irish produce and manufactures exported to Sweden and Norway in 1849 was 367,3631.