: THREAD MANUFACTURE. Sewing. r thread, and the various kinds of thread useC in the manufacture of bobbin-net, lace, an some other kinds of textile fabric, consist o i two or more yarns, or simple spun threads 3 firmly united together by twisting, just as I • rope-strand consists of several yarns or distinct cylinders of hemp.
The operation of combining yarns of cotton or linen into thread is performed by a machine called a doubling and twisting frame, somewhat resembling the throstle of the cotton-spinner. Along the centre of the machine is an elevated creel or frame-work, which supports two parallel rows of cops or bobbins of yarn, one row towards each side of the machine. From the cops the yarns are conducted over horizontal glass rods, which are fixed parallel with the creel, and thence downwards into troughs filled with water or very thin starch paste, which, by moistening the yarns, facili tates the subsequent process of twisting. After
being wetted, the yarns pass over the rounded edge of the trough, which is covered with flannel for the purpose of absorbing the super fluous moisture ; and thence under and partly around an iron roller, which is made to revolve with any required velocity by a train of wheel work. Upon this roller rests another, of box wood, which revolves solely by contact with the iron roller, its axis playing in vertical slots. In passing under the roller, then between it and the wooden roller, and finally over the latter, the yarns required to form the thread are brought together and slightly compressed ; and they are finally twisted by apparatus very like that used in throstle spinning. A few details concerning the export of thread are given under the names of the materials employed.