Home >> Bouvier's Law Dictionary >> Charta De Foresta to Concealment

Bouvier's Law Dictionary

Charta De Foresta
Charta De Foresta (written Carta De Forestay. A Collection Of The Laws Of The Forest, Made In The Reign Of Hen. Iii. The Charta De Forests Was Called The Great Char Ter Of The Woodland Population, Nobles, Barons, Free Men, And Slaves, Loyally Granted By Henry Iii. Early In His ...

Charter
Charter. A Grant Made By The Sover Eign Either To The Whole People Or To A Por Tion Of Them, Securing To Them The Enjoyment Of Certain Rights. 1 Story, Const. § 161; 1 Bla. Com. 108. A Charter Differs From A Constitution In This, That The Former Is Granted ...

Charter Party
Charter-party. A Contract Of Af Freightment, By Which The Owner Of A Ship Or Other Vessel Lets The Whole Or A Part Of Her To A Merchant Or Other Person For The Con Veyance Of Goods, On A Particular Voyage, In Consideration Of The Payment Of Freight. The Term Is ...

Chattel
Chattel (norm. Fr. Goods, Of Any Kind). Every Species Of Property, Movable Or Im Movable, Which Is Less Than A Freehold. In The Grand Couturnier Of Normandy It Is De Scribed As A Mere Movable, But Is Set In Opposition To A Fief Or Feud; So That Not Only Goods, ...

Chattel Mortgage
Chattel Mortgage. A Transfer Of Personal Property As Security For A Debt Or Obligation In Such Form That Upon Failure Of The Mortgagor To Comply With The Terms Of The Contract, The Title To The Property Will Be In The Mortgagee. Thomas, Mort. 427. An Absolute Pledge, To Become An ...

Cheat
Cheat. "deceitful Practices In Defraud Ing Or Endeavoring To Defraud Another Of His Known Right, By Some Wilful Device, Con Trary To The Plain Rules Of Common Honesty." Hawk. Pl. Cr. B. 2, C. 23, § 1. The Fraudulent Obtaining The Property Of Another By Any Deceitful And Illegal Prac ...

Chil D
Chil D. The Son Or Daughter, In Relation To The Father Or Mother. Illegitimate Children Are Bastards. Legiti Mate Children Are Those Born In Lawful Wed Lock. Natural Children Are Illegitimate Chil Dren. Posthumous Children Are Those Born After The Death Of The Father. Children Born In Lawful Wedlock, Or ...

Chinese
Chinese. Stringent Laws For The Entire Exclusion Of Chinese From The United States Have Been Passed In The Pacific States, Many Of Which Have Been Decided To Be Uncon Stitutional ; As Is An Ordinance That Every Male Person Imprisoned In The County Jail Should Have His Hair Cut Short ...

Chose In Action
Chose In Action. A Right To Receive Or Recover A Debt, Or Money, Or Damages For Breach Of Contract, Or For A Tort Connected With Contract, But Which Cannot Be Enforced Without Action. Comyns, Dig. Bicns. ' It Is Difficult To Find Out The Exact Mean Ing Of The Expression; ...

Christian Science
Christian Science. In Pennsylvania A Charter Was Refused To An Organization Of Christian Scientists On The Ground That To Recognize Their Doctrines Was Against The Public Policy Of The State; In Re First Church Of Christ, Scientist, 205 Pa. 543, 55 Atl. 536, 63 L. R. A. 411, 97 Am. ...

Christianity
Christianity. The Religion Established By Jesus Christ. Christianity Has Been Judicially Declared To Be A Part Of The Common Law Of Penn Sylvania ; Updegraph V. Com., 11 S. & R. (pa.) 394; Guardians Of The Poor V. Greene, 5 Sinn. (pa.) 555; (cited In U. S. V. Laws, 163 ...

Church
Church. A Society Of Persons Who Pro Fess The Christian Religion. Den V. Bolton, 12 N. J. L. 206, 214; Stebbins V. Jennings, 10 Pick. (mass.) 193 ; German Reformed Church V. Com., 3 Pa. 282 ; St. Johns Church V. Harms, 31 Pa. 9. The Place Where Such Persons ...

Church Of England
Church Of England. The Act Of 26 Henry Viii. Recognized The King As Being The Only Supreme Head Oft Earth Of The Church Of England, Having The Power To Correct All Errors, Heresies, Abuses, Offences, Contempts And Enormities. In 1531, Henry Was Acknowledged By Con Vocation As "protector And Supreme ...

Cinque Ports
Cinque Ports. The Five Ports Of Eng Land Which Lie Towards France. These Ports, On Account Of Their Importance As Defences To The Kingdom, Early Had Certain Privi Leges Granted Them, And In Recompense Were Bound To Furnish A Certain Number Of Ship6 And Men To Serve On The King's ...

Citation Of Authorities
Citation Of Authorities. The Pro Duction Of Or Reference To The Text Of Acts Of Legislatures, Treatises, Or Cases Of Similar Nature Decided By The Courts, In Order To Support Propositions Advanced. As The Knowledge Of The Law Is To A Great Degree A Knowledge Of Precedents, It Follows That ...

Citation Of Irish Reports
Citation Of Irish Reports. Up To The Year 1838, The Irish Reports Are Entitled By The Name Of The Reporter And Commonly Cited By An Abbreviation Of The Reporter's Name. In 1838 The Two Series Entitled, Respectively, "irish Law Reports" And "irish Equity Re Ports," Commenced Publication. Each Of These ...

Citizen
Citizen. In English Law. An Inhabit Ant Of A City. 1 Rolle, Abr. 138; 18 L. Q. Rev. 49. The Representative Of A City, In Parliament. 1 Bla. Com. 174. At Common Law A Natural-born Subject In Cluded Every Child Born In England Of Alien Parents Except The Child Of ...

Civil Damage Acts
Civil Damage Acts. Acts Passed In Many Of The United States Which Provide An Action For Damages Against A Vender Of Intoxicating Liquors, On Behalf Of The Wife Or Family Of A Person Who Has Sustained Injuries By Reason Of His Intoxication. Dice V. Sherberneau, 152 Mich. 601, 116 N. ...

Civil Law
Civil Law. This Term Is Generally Used To Designate The Roman Jurisprudence, Jus Civile Romanorum. In Its Most Extensive Sense, The Term Roman Law Comprises All Those Legal Rules And Principles Which Were In Force Among The Romans, Without Refer Ence To The Time When They Were Adopted. But In ...

Civil Rights
Civil Rights. A Term Applied To Cer Tain Rights Secured To Citizens Of The United States By The 13th And 14th Amendments To The Constitution, And By Various Acts Of Congress Made In Pursuance Thereof. The Act Of April 9, 1866 ("ordinarily Called The 'civil Rights Bill' ;" Bradley, J., ...

Claim
Claim. A Challenge Of The Ownership Of A Thing Which Is Wrongfully Withheld From The Possession Of The Claimant. Plowd. 359. See Cummings V. Lynn, 1 Doll. (u. S.) 444, 1 L. Ed. 215; Willing V. Peters, 12 S. & R. (pa.) 177. In A Popular Sense, Claim Is A ...

Classification
Classification. Judgments In Civil Caus Es, Considered With Respect To The Method Of Obtaining Them, May Be Thus Classified. I. When The Result Is Obtained By The Trial Of An Issue Of Fact. In This Case The Trial May Involve Questions Both Of Law And Fact, But The Law Is ...

Classification Of Partnerships
Classification Of Partnerships. The Roman Law Recognized Five Sorts Of Partner Ship. First: Societas Unilversorum Bonorum, A Community Of • Goods: Probably A Survival Of The Old Tribal Relation. Second: Societas Universorum Gum Ex Qucestu Veniunt, Or Part Nership In Everything Which Comes From Gain,—the Usual Form ; Pothier, Part. ...

Clearance
Clearance. A Certificate Given By The Collector Of A Port, In Which It Is Stated That The Master Or Commander (naming Him) Of A Ship Or Vessel Named And Described, Bound For A Port Named (and Having On Board Goods Described, In Case The Master Requires The Particulars Of His ...

Clearing House
Clearing-house. An Office Where Bankers Settle Daily With Each Other The Bal Ance Of Their Accounts. The Origin Of The System Is Said To Have Been In Edinburgh; At Least The Bankers Of That City So Claim; But The Earliest Record Of One (and That Is Not Clear As To ...

Codicil
Codicil. Some Addition To, Or Qualifica Tion Of, A Last Will And Testament. This Term Is Derived From The Latin Codicillus, Which Is A Diminutive Of Codex, And In Strictness Imports A Little Code Or Wrlting,—a Little Will. In The Roman Civil Law, Codicil Was Defined Ae An Act Which ...

Coercion
Coercion. Constraint; Compulsion ; Force. Direct Or Positive Coercion Takes Place When A Man Is By Physical Force Compelled To Do An Act Contrary To His Will: For Ex Ample, When A Man Falls Into The Hands Of The Enemies Of His Country, And They Com Pel Him, By A ...

Cognizance
Cognizance (lat. Cognitio, Recognition, Knowledge; Spelled, Also, Conusance And Cog Nisance). Acknowledgment; Recognition; Ju Risdiction ; Judicial Power; Hearing A Matter Judicially. See 12 Ad. & El. 259. Of Pleas. Jurisdiction Of Causes. A Privi Lege Granted By The King To A City Or Town To Hold Pleas Within The ...

Collateral Warranty
Collateral Warranty. Warranty As To An Estate Made By One Who Was An Cestor To The Heir Thereof, Either Actually Or By Implication Of Law, In Respect To Other Property, But Who Could Not Have Been So In Respect To The Estate In Question. Warranty Made Where The Heir's Title ...

College
College. An Organized Collection Or As Semblage Of Persons. A Civil Corporation, So Ciety, Or Company, Having, In General, Some Literary Object. The Assemblage Of The Cardinals At Rome Is Called A College. The Body Of Presidential Electors Is Called The Electoral College, Although The Whole Body Never Come Together. ...

Collision
Collision. The Act Of Ships Or Vessels Striking Together, Or Of One Vessel Running Against Or Foul Of Another. It May Happen Without Fault, No Blame Being Imputable To Those In Charge Of Either Vessel. In Such Case, In The English, Ameri Can, And French Courts, Each Party Must Bear ...

Colloquium
Colloquium. A General Averment In An Action For Slander Connecting The Whole Publication With The Previous Statement. 1 Stark. Si. 431; Heard, Lib. & Sl. 228 ; Or Stating That The Whole Publication Applies To The Plaintiff, And To The Extrinsic Matters Alleged In His Declaration. 1 Greenl. Ev. § ...

Collusion
Collusion. An Agreement Between Two Or More Persons To Defraud A Person Of His Rights By The Forms Of Law, Or To Obtain An Object Forbidden By Law. Collusion And Fraud Of Every Kind Vitiate All Acts Which Are Infected With Them, And Render Them Void. See 3 Hagg. Eccl, ...

Colonus
Colonus (lat.). In Civil Law. A Serf Attached To The Soil And Whose Descendants So Continued. Whilst The Colon,/ Were Not Really Servi, And In Many Respects Were Held To Be Ingenui, They Were Not Permitted To Remove From The Place On Which They Were Born Into This Status. They ...

Color
Color. In Pleading. An Apparent But Legally Insufficient Ground Of Action Ad Mitted To Subsist In The Opposite Party By The Pleading Of One Of The Parties To An Ac Tion. 3 Bla. Com. 309; 4 B. & C. 547. To Give Color Is To Give The Plaintiff Credit For ...

Color Of Title
Color Of Title. In Ejectment. An Apparent Title To Land Founded Upon A Writ Ten Instrument, Such As A Deed, Levy Of Exe Cution, Decree Of Court, Or The Like. 3 Wait, Act. & Def. 17; Brooks V. Bruyn, 35 Ill. 394; Torrey V. Forbes, 94 Ala. 135, 10 South. ...

Comity
Comity. A Term Designating The Practice By Which One Court Follows The Decision Another Court On A Like Question, Though Not Bound By The Law Of Precedents To Do So.. The Question Most Frequently Arises Among The Federal Courts Of Different Circuits. The Importance Of Securing Uniformity In The Law ...

Commerce
Commerce. The Various Agreements Which Have For Their Object Facilitating The Exchange Of The Products Of The Earth Or The Industry Of Man, With An Intent To Realize A Profit. Pardessus, Dr. Com. N, 1. Any Recip Rocal Agreements Between Two Persons, By Which One Delivers To The Other A ...

Commercial Agency
Commercial Agency. A Person, Firm, Or Corporation Engaged In The Business Of Collecting Information As To The Financial Standing, Ability, And Credit Of Persons En Gaged In Business And Reporting The Same To Subscribers Or To Customers Applying And Paying Therefor. "they Have Become Vast And Extensive Factors In Modern ...

Commercial Law
Commercial Law. A Phrase Employed To Denote Those Branches Of The Law Which Relate To The Rights Of Property And Rela Tions Of Persons Engaged In Commerce. This Term Denotes More Than The Phrase "mari Time Law," Which Is Sometimes Used As Synonymous, But Which More Strictly Relates To Shipping ...

Commercial Traveller
Commercial Traveller. A Travel Ling Salesman Who Simply Exhibits Samples Of Goods Kept For Sale By His Principal, And Takes Orders From Purchasers For Such Goods, Which Goods Are Afterwards To Be Delivered By The Principal To The Purchasers, And Pay Ment For The Goods Is To Be Made By ...

Commissions
Commissions. Compensation Allowed To Agents, Factors, Executors, Trustees, Receiv Ers, And Other Persons Who Manage The Af Fairs Of Others, In Recompense For • Their Services. The Right To Such Allowance May Either Be The Subject Of A Special Contract, May Rest Upon An Implied Contract To Pay Quantum Nieruit, ...

Commitment
Commitment. The Warrant Or Order By Which A Court Or Magistrate Directs A Minis Terial Officer To Take A Person To Prison. The Act Of Sending A Person To Prison By Means Of Such A Warrant Or Order. Skinner V. White, 9 N. H. 204. A Commitment Should Be In ...

Common
Common. An Incorporeal Hereditament, Which Consists In A Profit Which One Man Has In Connection With One Or More Others In The Land Of Another. Trustees Of Western University Of Pennsylvania V. Robinson, 12 S. & R. (pa.) 32; Van Rensselaer V. Rad Cliff, 10 Wend. (n. Y.) 647, 25 ...

Common Appendant
Common Appendant. Common Of Pasture Appendant Is A Right Annexed To The Pos Session Of Laud, By Which The Owner There Of Is Entitled To Feed His Beasts On The Wastes Of The Manor. It Can Only Be Claimed By Prescription: So That It Cannot Be Pleaded By Way Of ...

Common Carriers
Common Carriers. One Whose Busi Ness, Occupation, Or Regular Calling It Is To Carry Chattels For All Persons Who May Choose To Employ And Remunerate Him. Dwight V. Brewster, 1 Pick (mass.) 50, 11 Am. Dec. 133 ; Fish V. Chapman, 2 Ga. 353, 46 Am. Dec. 393; Schoul. Bailm. ...

Common Carriers Of
Common Carriers Of Common Carriers Of Passengers Are Such As Undertake For Hire To Carry All Persons In Differently Who May Apply For Passage, So Long As There Is Room, And There Is No Legal Excuse For Refusing. Thomps. Carriers Of Passengers 26, N. § 1; Vinton V. R. Co., ...

Common Law
Common Law. That System Of Law Or Form Of The Science Of Jurisprudence Which Has Prevailed In England And In The United States Of America, In Contradistinction To Other Great Systems, Such As The Roman Or Civil Law. Those Principles, Usages, And Rules• Of Ac Tion Applicable To The Government ...

Community
Community (lat. Communis, Common). In Civil Law. A Corporation Or Body Politic. Dig. 3. 4. "we Can Find In Our Law Books No Such Terms As Corporation, Body Corporate, Body Politic, Though We May Read Much Of Con Vents, Chapters And Communities. The Larg Est Term In General Use Is ...

Companies
Companies. A Municipal Corporation Having Power To Light Its Own Streets, And Erect And Maintain Gas Works Has Implied Power To Contract With Others To Do So; City Of Newport V. Light Co., 84 Ky. 166. A Municipal Council Exceeds Its Power, In Granting An Exclusive Privilege; Cincinnati Gaslight & ...

Compensation
Compensation. In Chancery Practice. Something To Be Done For Or Paid To A Per Son Of Equal Value With Something Of Which He Has Been Deprived By The Acts Or Negli Gence Of The Party So Doing Or Paying. When A Simple Mistake, Not A Fraud, Ef Fects A Contract, ...

Compounding A Felony
Compounding A Felony. The Act Of A Party Immediately Aggrieved, Who Agrees With A Thief Or Other Felon That He Will Not. Prosecute Him, On Condition That He Return To Him The Goods Stolen, Or Who Takes A Re Ward Not To Prosecute. See State V. Buck Master, 2 Harr. ...

Compurgator
Compurgator. One Of Several Neigh Bors Of A Person Accused Of A Crime Or Charg Ed As A Defendant In A Civil Action, Who Ap Peared And Swore That They Believed Him On His Oath. 3 Bla. Com. 341. Formerly, When A Person Was Accused Of A Crime, Or Sued ...

Concealment
Concealment. The Improper Suppres Sion Of Any Fact Or Circumstance By One Of The Parties To A Contract From The Other, Which In Justice Ought To Be Known. The Omission By An Applicant For Insur Ance Preliminarily To State Facts Known To Him, Or Which He Is Hound To Know, ...