LIEUTENANT. This word has now a nar rower meaning than it formerly had: its true meaning is a deputy, a substitute, from the French (place or post) and tenant (holder). Among civil officers we have lieu7 tenant-governers, who in certain cases per form the duties of governors, lieutenants of potice, etc. Among military men, lieutenant general was formerly the title of a command ing general, but now it signifies the degree above major-general. Lieutenant-eolonel is the officer between the colonel and the major. Lieutenant, simply, signifies the officer next below a captain. In the navy, a lieutenant is the second officer, next in command to the captain of a ship.
LIFE. "The sum of the forces by which death is resisted." Bichat.
A state in which energy of function is ever resisting decay and dissolution.
It commences, for many legal purposes, at the period• of quickening, when the first motion of the foetus in utero is perceived by the mother; 1 Bla. Com. 129; Co. 3d Inst. 50. It ceases at death. See DEATH.
But physiology pronounces life as exist ing from the period of conception, because foetuses vn utero do die prior to quickening, and then all the signs of death are found to be perfect ; Dean, Med. Jur. 129, 130.
For many important purposes, however, the law concedes to physiology the fact that life commences at conception, en ven tre sa mere. See Fcczus. Thus, it may receive a legacy, have a guardian assigned to it, and an estate limited to its use ; 1 Bla. Com. 130. It is thus considered as alive for all beneficial purposes; 1 I'. Wins. 329.
But for the transfer of civil rights the child must be born alive. The ascertain ment of this, as a fact, depends upon certain signs which are always attendant upon life; the most important of these is crying. As to conditions of live birth, see BIRTH; IN FANTICIDE ; LIABILITY.
Life is presumed to continue for one hun dred years; Sassman v. Aime, 9 Mart. 0. S. (La.) 257. As to the presumption of sur vivorship in case of the death of two persons at or about the same time, see DEATH.