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Progild3 In The United
Progild;3 In The United States —t11 1 &1 The Main Batteries Of United States War Vessels Were Composed Of (1) Dahlgren Smooth-bores, Chiefly Of 9-in. Caliber ; (2) Muzzle Loading Guns Of The Parrott Type ; (3) 8-in. Muzzle-loading Rifles Converted On The Palliser System From 11-in, Smooth Bore, And ...

Projectiles
Projectiles. (see Also, Armor; Ordnance Gun, Pneumatic.) Material. —a Little More Than Twelve Years Ago Chilled Cast-iron Projectiles Were Considered All That Could Be Desired For Work Upon The Wrought-iron Armor Of That Period, And, In Fact, An Extensive Series Of Experiments Made In England Tended To Prove That Against ...

Puddling And Heating Furnaces
Furnaces, Puddling And Heating. The James Puddling-furnace Is Shown In Fig. 1. It Has A Hollow Fire-bridge C, With A Transverse Flue Ii, From Which A Number Of Orifices, C, Lead Upward. The Air Is Preheated In The Flue P, Which Connects, As Shown, With The Space E In The ...

Pulverizers And Harrows
Pulverizers And Harrows. The " Pulverizers" Constitute Connecting-links Between The Plow And The Harrow, And Are, Indeed, Loosely Termed Harrows ; Hut The Action Of Those With Obliquely Revolving Disks Cuts And Turns The Earth After The Manner Of The Ordinary Plow, Rather Than By Raking And Scratching It Like ...

Pump Governors
Governors, Pump. The Albany Steam Trap Co.'s Pump-governor Is Shown In Figs. 1 And 2. Fig. 2, In Section, Represents A Closed Vessel Containing One Within It, Which Is Termed A Movable Bucket, Having Screwed Into Its Bottom A Short Piece Of Pipe Which Serves As A Guide For The ...

Punching Machines
Punching Machines. Reduc Ing Couplings For Punches.—fig. 1 Il Lustrates A System Of Reducing Couplings, Manufactured By The Pratt & Whitney Co., By Which Punches Of Short Lengths And Small Diameter Can Be Adjusted To Stocks Made For Larger Punches. Heretofore The Changing Of Punches Of Large Diameters For Smaller ...

Quarrying Machinery
Quarrying Machinery. The Most Important Improvement In Quarrying Appli Ances Made Within The Decade Is The General Adoption Of The Channeling Process, Which Has Been Rendered Possible By The Improvements Made In Channeling Machines. The Channeling Process Is A Means By Which Artificial Seams Are Made In The Quarry For ...

Railroad Cars Vestibule
Railroad Cars. Vestibule Pullman 'vestibule Provides A Continu Ous Connection Between Contiguous Ends Of Passenger Railway Cars, Forming An Entirely Closed Passageway, Preferably Of The Width Of The Car Platforms, And Serving At The Same Time As A Vestibule For Entrance And Exit To The Respective Ends Of The Cars. ...

Railroad Snow Shovel
Shovel, Railroad Snow. An Apparatus For Removing Snow From Railway Tracks. Figs. 1, 2, 3 Illustrate The Leslie Rotary Shovel. Fig. 1 Shows The Machine In Section, And Figs. 2 And 3 Show Its Appearance When Actually At Work. A Stout Frame Of Heavy I-beams Is Mounted Upon Two Four-wheeled ...

Rails
Rails. In The Decade From 1880 To 1890 But Few Changes Have Ve Taken Place In The Theory Or Practice Of Construction And Maintenance Of The Permanent Way Of Railroads. One Im Portant Change Has Taken Place, In The United States At Least, In Theory, And To Sonic Degree In ...

Reapers
Reapers. The Reaper Has Been So Far Superseded By The Binding-harvester That Inventive Energy May Almost Be Said To Have Become Diverted From This Form Of Harvesting Machine ; Nevertheless A Large Aggregate Of Reapers Is Made Annually. Steel, And Malleable And Cast Iron Are Employed For Many Of The ...

Recent Improvements In Watch
Recent Improvements In Watch Making.—the Waltham Watch Co. In Troduced A Novel Improvement In The Movements Of Their Make A Few Years Ago, Which Has Helped To Offset Any Damage Done To The Train Following The Breaking Of The Mainspring. The Center Pinion Is Removably Fixed To The Center Staff ...

Reciprocating Pumps
Pumps, Reciprocating. The Worthington High Duty Pump.—one Of The Most Important Recent Inventions In Pumping Machinery Is That Of The High-duty Attachment To The Worthington Duplex Pumping-engine, By Which Engines Of The Direct-acting, Reciprocating Type, Without Fly-wheels, May Be Caused To Store Up Energy During The First Part Of The ...

Riveting Machines
Riveting Machines. Elastic Rotary-blow Riveting Machine.—the Use Of The Ma Chine Shown In Fig. 1—made By John Adt & Son, New Haven, Conn.—extends To Almost Every Branch Of Manufacturing Where Articles Are Held Together By Rivets. Its Most Important Feature Is In The Combina Tion And Working Of The Cylinder ...

Roasting Furnaces
Furnaces, Roasting. Roasting-fiirnaces Are Either Oxidizing Or Chloridizing, According As The Purpose For Which They Are Used Is To Convert The Metals In The Ores Treated To Oxides Or Chlorides. There Are Six Kinds Of Roasting-furnaces In Common Use, Viz.: Kilns, Muffle-furnaces, Reverberatory Furnaces (fortschaufelungsofen), Shaft-furnaces, Mechanical Hearth-furnaces, And Cylindrical ...

Rock 1 Drills
Drills, Rock. 1. Dutta..s Driven By Steam Or Ant.— 7'he Sergeant This Machine Has A Positive Vale. Moved By Direct Cottac•t With The Piston. It Is Used In Quarry-work Where The Steam Is Wet, And Where The Rock Is Reasonably Soft, Such As Slate, Sand Stone, Oolitic Limestone, Etc. The ...

Rotary
Rotary Piston P081 Tive-pithm Pump, As Built By The Ken Sington Engine Works, Philadelphia, Is Shown In Figs. 14, 15, And 16. This Pump Produces Suction And Forcing By The Rotary Movement Of A Piston. The Work Is Done In Two Annular Chambers, Surrounding, An Internal Cylinder, And Separated By ...

Rotary Pumps
Pumps, Rotary. Centrifugal Pumps,----apaper By John Richards, Of San Francisco, Published In The Proceedings Of The Institution Of Mechanical Engineers, February, 1888, Con Tains Much Valuable Information On The Subject Of Centrifugal Pumps. We Abstract From It As Below: Elsewhere It Has Not Been Common To Recommend Centrifugal Pumps For ...

Safes And Vaults I
Safes And Vaults. I. Burglar-proof Construction.—the Highest Skill Of The Safe Maker Is Now Devoted To The Construction Of Strong-rooms And Vaults For Banks And Safe Deposit Companies. Safe-de Posit And Bank Vaults.—fig. I Represents A Front Elevation Of A Structure In Tended To Be Proof Against Not Only Fire ...

Sandpapering Machines
Sandpapering Machine's. Sandpapering Machinery, With Which May Be Included Finishing Machines Using Sanding Belts, And Sanding Cylinders And Cones, Arc Of Great Variety, According To The Class Of Work Which They Are To Perform. The Function Of All Is The Same : To Remove Roughness And Produce A Smoothly Finished ...

Sash Michines
Sash Michines. Wood-working Machinery Includes Not Merely Machines For Cutting Material, But Those For Clamping, Bending, Etc. Sash And Door Manufacturers Make Use Of Machines Which Clamp Up Sash, And, Where They Are Glued, Hold Them While The Glue Is Drying. One Variety Has Heavy Plate Sides And Guards, And ...

Screw Machines
Screw Machines. The Name Screw Machine Is Not Properly Descriptive Of The Class Of Machines To Which It Is Applied. It Does Not Well Indicate Many Purposes For Which They Have Come To Be Used, And Yet It Had Been Too Long Applied To Be Readily Changed. The Name Turret ...

Screw Threads
Screw Threads. At A Meeting Of The American Institute Of Mining Engineers, Held At Chattanooga In 1885, Major William R. King Read A Paper On The Subject Of Screw Threads, In Which He Took The Ground That The Ordinary Thread Was Cut Too Deep Into The Iron, And, Consequently. The ...

Seeders Am Drills
Seeders Am) Drills, All Classes Of Seeders Have Been Improved And Simplified To Such An Extent As To Come Into General Use, So That Hand Sowing Has Been Quite Superseded. The Moline Broadcast Seeder (fig. 1) Is Made By The Deere & Mansur Co., For Use With Or With Out ...

Sewing Machines I Machines
Sewing Machines. I. Machines For Domestic Use. —lock-wtch _machines. Tile Wheeler & Wilson ..31achinc8.—in The Latest Forms Of Machines Of This Manufacture The Principal Improvements Consist In The Extension Of The Rotary Mode Of Motion To Every Part Of The Mechanism Which Does Not Require A Different Movement ; In ...

Shapers And Fr1ezers
Shapers And Fr1ezers, More Than Most Other Wood-working Machines, Should Be So Well Designed And Constructed That They Will Do Accurate And Perfect Work, All Pieces That They Produce Being Curved And Molded, And Their Sharpness And Accuracy Would Be Lessened By The Use Of Sandpapering Machinery, However Carefully Handled. ...

Shingle Ma King Machinery
Shingle-ma King Machinery. In The Manufacture Of Shingles Nearly Every Machine, Except For Jointing The Butts, Is A Sawing Machine; The Difference Being As To Whether The Saws Are On Vertical Or Horizontal Arbors, And Whether One Saw Takes Care Of One Or More Than One Block. Machines With Two ...

Silver Mills
Mills, Silver. Silver-ores Are Worked By One Of Three Ways—amalgamation, Lixivia Tion, And Smelting. The Selection Of The Process For Treating Any Particular Ore Is A Question Of Dollars And Cents, And No General Rules Can Be Laid Down. In Colorado, Silver-ores Are Treated Almost Exclusively By Smelting. There Are ...

Sizing
Sizing Screens.—sizing Screens Are A Very Important Part Of A Concentrating Mill, As The Success Of The Subsequent Separation Of The Various Constituents Of The Ore To Be Treated By The Hydraulic Machines Depends Upon The Proper Sizing Of The Particles. The Ordinary Sizing Screen Or Trommel Consists Of A ...

Slime Wasiiing
Slime-wasiiing Machines.—the Fruevanner (fig. 6) Is An Endless Inclined Rubber Belt, Supported By Rollers So As To Form A Plane Inclined Rubber Surface, 4 Ft. Wide, 12 Ft. Long, And Bounded On The Sides By Rubber Flanges. The Belt Travels Up The Incline And Around A Lower Drum, Which Dips ...

Soap
Soap • Makers' Machin Ery. There Are Two Well-known Processes Of Soap-making, That By Long-continued Boiling, And The So Called "cold Process." While "cold-process" Soap Can Be Made With A Much Simpler And Cheaper Plant Than Regularly Boiled Soap, It Requires A Higher Grade Of Stock To Make A Merchantable ...

Stalk Cutters
Stalk Cutters. Cornstalks, Where The Growth Has Been Rank, Are An Obstacle To The Plow. The Stalk Cutter, By Means Of Draft Hooks Pendent Under The Frame, Combs The Stalks Into Line, And Then, By Means Of Transverse Revolving Knives, Chops Them Into Short Lengths, Which Cannot Foul The Plow ...

Starting And Stopping
"starting And Stopping A Test.—ix. A Test Should Last At Least Ten Hours Of Continuous Running, And Twenty-four Hours Whenever Practicable. The Conditions Of The Boiler And Fur Nace In All Respects Should Be, As Nearly As Possible, The Same At The End As At The Beginning Of The Teat. ...

Stationary Reciprocating Engines Steam
Engines. Steam, Stationary Reciprocating. Great Progress Has Been Made In Stationary Steam-engine Practice During The Last Ten Years Along The Lines Indicated In The Article On Steam-engines In Appletons' Cyclopedia Of Mechanics. No Revolutionary Invention Has Been Made During This Time, But There Has Been A Steady And Rapid Development ...

Steam Boilers
Boilers, Steam. During The Last Ten Years No Special Improvements Have Been Made In The Construction Of Steam-boilers In The Direction Of Improving Their Economy Of Fuel; In Fact, Further Progress In This Direction Is Scarcely Possible In Boilers Fired With Anthracite Coal, Since Many Years Ago Boilers Were Made ...

Steam Capstan Windlass
Windlass, Steam Capstan, Fig. 1 Represents A New Form Of Steam Capstan Wind Lass. Manufactured By The American Ship Windlass Co., Of Providence. H. I., Which Has Become Almost Exclusively Adopted On American Vessels. Among The Novel Features Are The Following : The Valves Of The Engines Are Driven By ...

Steam Engine Indicators
Indicators, Steam-engine. The Tabor _indicator Is Shown In Fig. 1. The Special Peculiarity Of The Tabor Indicator Lies In The Means Employed To Communicate A Straight-line Movement To The Pencil. A Stationary Plate Containing A Curved Slot Is Firmly Se Cured In An Upright Position To The Cover Of The ...

Steam Gauges
Gauges, Steam. Bristol's Recording Presmre-gottge.—this Instrument (shown In Figs. 1 And 2) Is A Recent Invention Of Prof. W. Il Bristol, Of The Stevens Institute Of Tech Nology. Fig. I Represents The Instrument Complete And Ready For Application. Fig. 2 Shows The Pressure-tube With The Inking-pointer Attached ; The Front ...

Steam Logger
Logger, Steam. This Name Is To A Traction-machine Devised By Mr. '1'. Glover. Which Can Be Driven By Steam Over A Snow Road, And Which, It Is Claimed, Will ''draw After It From 30,000 To 40,000 Ft. Of The Machine Is Mounted On Two Sleds, Midway Between Which The Boiler ...

Steam Loop
Steam Loop. The Steam Loop Is The Name Given To An Ingenious Device, Shown In Fig. 1, For Returning The Water Of Condensation From A Steam Pipe Or Separator Into The Boiler. It Consists Merely Of A System Of Piping, And Does Not Necessarily Contain Any Valves, Adjust Ments, Or ...

Steam Rotary Engines
Engines, Steam Rotary. The Tower Spherical Engine.—the Construction Of This Engine Is Described In Detail, With Illustrations, In Proc. Limt. M. E., 1ss5. Space Will Not Admit Of The Complete Description Being Given Here, But The Following Abstract Gives A Clear Idea Of Its Geometrical Principles. The Spherical Engine Consists, ...

Steam Separators
Separators, Steam, Are Used To Separate And Remove The Water Entrained Or Mechan Ically Suspended In A Current Of Steam Flowing Through A Pipe. The Names " Eliminator " And " Extractor " Are Also Applied To The Same Apparatus, And Also To Contrivances For Removing Oil, Grease, Or Grit ...

Steam Stationary Reciprocating
Steam Stationary Reciprocating, For The Rice Engine.) The ..lichdosh & Seymour Governor.—fig. 5 Repre Sents The Governor Used On The Mcintosh & Seymour En Gines (see Engines, Steam Stationary Reciprocating) Up To 150 Horse-power With The Weights In Their Two Extreme Positions, The Details Of The Different Parts Being Shown ...

Steam Traps
Traps, Steam. The Thom Balanred Steam. Trap, Shown In Fig. 1, Eonsists Of A East-iron Casing, Enclosing A Galvanized-iron Float, Open At The Top. To The Bottom Of The Float Is Attached A Sleeve. With A Valve Seat, Which Is Fitted Around A Vertical Pipe. The Latter Is Fastened To ...

Steel
Steel Harvey Steel Box Car (fig. Car Is Essentially A Steal Car, But It Has A Wooden Floor And Lining. The Center Sills Are Made Of 12-in. Channels, 20 Lbs. Per Ft.. Placed 1() In. Apart. To These Channels Are Riveted The Drawbar Attachment, As Shown. The Center Of Draft ...

Storage Batteries
Storage Batteries. The Storage, Secondary Or Reversible Battery, And Accumu Lator Are Different Terms Applied To A Form Of Eell Based On The Principle Demonstrated By Faraday In 1834, That Chemical And Electrical Energy Were Mutually Convertible. In 1859, After Experiments With Various Metals, Plantil Decided Upon The Use Of ...

Stoves Hot Beast
Stoves. Hot-beast. During The Past Ten Years A Marked Improvement Has Been Made In Blast-furnace Practice In The Universal Introduction In A Rge Furnaces Of Fire-brick Stoves Instead Of The Iron-pipe Stoves Formerly Used. The Improvements Have Consisted In Making Them Much Taller, And In Providing Better Facilities For Cleaning ...

Stump Pullers
Stump Pullers. Machines For Clearing Lands Of Stumps Without The Use Of Methods Involving Explosives. The Chamberlin, Stump Puller Has Three Legs From 12 To 18 Ft. High. According To Size Of Machine. The Legs Are Bolted At The Tops To A Round Iron Cap With A Concave Depression In ...

Swaging Machines
Swaging Machines. Figs. 1, 2, And 3 Represent The Dayton Swaging Machine. As Used By The Excelsior Needle Co., At Torrington. Conn., For The Swaging Of Needle Blanks. It Contains A Revolving Shaft Having Across Its End A Mortise Or Groove, And A Pair Of Sliding (lies. Around This Is ...

T Preliminaries To A
"preliminaries To A Test,-t. In Preparing For And Conducting Trials Of Steam-boilers, The Specific Object Of The Proposed Trial Should Be Clearly Defined And Steadily Kept In View. " 11. Measure And Record The Di W12810718, Position, Etc., Of Grate And Heating Surfaces, Flues And Chimneys, Proportion Of Air Space ...