CABBAGE BUTTERFLY. There are Va rious butterflies infesting the cabbage. Until the European form (Pieris rapce)• was introduced, however, but little difficulty was experienced in keeping them in check We give an illustration of the southern species of larva and caterpillar (P. protodice). Dr. Riley says, P. vernalis is but the spring form of P. protodice. The illustra tion will serve as a key to the various species which infest the cabbage. Of these pests, Dr. Thomas says: The Southern Cabbage-worm (see illustration, a, larva, and b, pupa on leaf.) is very widely distributed, being found even in the high altitudes of the nfountains; but for all that the name is appropriate, being more abundant in the warmer portions of the United States, and there often proving very destructive to the cab bage crop, taking the place in that sense, of the Rape Butterfly, whose latitude is further north, It is quite common in Illinois, but it has been injurious here only to a limited extent, and that chiefly in the vicinity of the large cities. One of the reasons why it is not so abundant further north seems to be that the chrysalides are more susceptible to the influences of our long, cold winters, than some other kinds. This does not destroy the species, but only serves to lessen the number of chrysalides that pass the winter with out injury, thereby lessening the number of in dividuals of the spring brood of butterflies. The larva, or caterpillar, is of a greenish-blue color, with four longitudinal yellow stripes, and covered with black dots. When newly hatched it is of a uniform orange color, with a black head, but it becomes a dull brown before the first moult. The longitudinal stripes and black spots are only visible after the skin has been cast the first time. The chrysalis varies some what in color, but is generally a light bluish gray, more or less speckled with black, the ridges and prominences edged with buff or red dish. The two sexes of the perfeet.inseet differ some in color. In the male the wings are white, with a large trapezoidal, spot at the end of the distal cell of the fore wings, and an oblique in terrupted black band near the outer border, with a little black on the veins at the outer end. The hind wings are without spots. The female is darker, the black of the fore wings more in tense, with the hind wings tinted with grayish. There are at least two broods of the worms in a season. They are to be found on cabbages, in all stages of growth, through the months of July, August and September. The last brood pass the winter in the chrysalis state, and be come the first brood of butterflies in the spring of the next year. The European Cabbage But terfly, since its introduction, has proved fear fully destructive to the cabbage crop both East and West, and is now found even west of the Mississippi river. As yet, no sure means has been found for counteracting its ravages. Its history in America is as follows; It was intro duced from Europe to Quebec, Canada, about the year 1857, and from thence it went south wards along the railway lines to New York, Philadelphia and Washington, and thence east and westward over the whole country from the Atlantic Ocean to west of the Mississippi,-and north and . south from Canada to Virginia. This species is described as a pale green' worm, an inch and a half long, finely dotted with black; a yellow stripe down the back, and a row of yellow spots along each side, in a line with flu, stigmata or breathing pores. The eggs from which these are produced are laid on the under aide of the leaves. There are at least two broods of the worms in a season, the first changing to chrysalides in June and hatching to butterflies in seven or eight days afterwards, while the second brood pass the winter in the pupae state. The chrysalis, is variable in color, being sometimes yellowish-brown or yellow, and passing thence Into green, speckled with minute black dots. The perfect insect is about the size of the Turnip Butterfly. In color the body is black in the male, the wings white, with the tip and a dot near the middle of the front wings black, and a black dash in the front edge of the hind wings. On the under side, there are two black dots on the fore wines, while the tip and the whole surface of the hind wings are lemon-yellow. In the female the upper side of the wings are a whitish ochre, while the lemon-yellow of the under side is more intense than in the male, and there are two dots on the upper side of the fore wings in stead of one. These caterpillars differ from the foregoing kinds, and also from the Turnip But terfly noticed hereafter, in their manner of eating. While the larva' of the Southern Cabbage and the Turnip Butterflies feed mostly on the out side leaves, going but little, if any, into the head; these are much more destructive, as they have the habit of boring into the interior of the head. When-about to change to chrysalides they, like the last, leave the cabbage and attach their chrysalides to the under side of sticks, pieces of board and stones that are above the ground, etc.— anything that can offer a shelter and support. In relation, to remedies, Dr. Thomas says. Ad vantage may be taken of the fact that the full grown caterpillars leave the cabbages for some sheltered place in which to undergo their trans formations, 'by placing boards, that are raised a little from the gfound, among the infested plants. By examining these boards every five or
six days and destroying the chrysalides, the future work of the worms may be very materially less ened. Where there are but few infested plants, the caterpillars may be destroyed by hand. As the worms work inside the heads more than either of the other species, chicken picking would be of but little service, as they would not find those that were doing the most damage. Heads that are so badly infested that they are past re covery, should be burned, as by that means all the insects that might be in them in the different stages of development, as well as the would be destroyed. In addition to the above methods of attacking the insects in the worm and chrysa lide state, the butterflies that are seen flying over the cabbages may be caught, thereby preventing the eggs being laid on the plants. For this pur pose a net may be used, made of musquito bar or other light material, fastened to a hoop of light wire attached to a stick about three feet long, for a handle. To be convenient to handle, the should be about ten inches in diameter, and the wire not any heavier than is necessary to give it that degree of stiffness to keep its shape. The depth-of the net should be twice the diameter of the hoop. As with other insects, man is not obliged to do all the fighting in this case; some species of .birds, it is said, devour the larvae, and also the perfect insect; but the most effective foe to this species is a small Chaltis Fly (Pterotnalus puparum) that seems to follow close in the wake of its host. It had been supposed that this valuable little parasite was only a native of Eu rope, and had been introduced into this country at about the same time as the Rape Butterfly, but Packard is of the opinion that it is a native of this country, and preys also upon the other species of Pieria. The chrysalides of the butterfly that were infested by this parasite, could easily be told by the livid and otherwise discolored and diseased appearance. In destroying chrysalides, such should not be destroyed, as by allowing them to remain, the parasites, instead of butter flies, will hatch from•them and then serve as much additional help toward the destruction of the Cabbage-worms. The specific character is given as follows: Male—expanse of wings about 1.75 inches. Ground color of both wings above, white. The tip of the fore wings and a round spot near the middle, black. The hind wings have a dash of the same color on the costa a little beyond the middle. Both wings dusky at base. Underside fore wings white, with black spots, the second near the hind angle, and the tip lemon-yellow, the same color reaching a little on the costa toward the body. Hind wings uniform lemon-yellow. Both wings sprinkled somewhat near the base with gray scales. There is a variety of the male that has the same markings but the grouud color above is lemon-yellow. Female— differs from the male as follows: The color above is a light ochre-yellow instead of white. The marks are the same, except a second black dot near the hind angle of the fore wings; under side, the lemon-yellow on both wings is more intense, and expands along the costa and outer margin of the fore wings. The body is black above in both sexes, but light beneath. The Turnip butterfly (Pieria oleracea) is so related to the foregoing, that we give place to it here. Dr. Harris describes it as follows: About the last of May and the beginning of June it is seen fluttering over cabbage, radish, and turnip beds and patches of mustard for the purpose of depositing its eggs. These are fastened to the undersides of the leaves, and but seldom more than three or four are left upon one leaf. The eggs are yellowish, nearly pear-shaped, longi tudinally ribbed, and are one-fifteenth of an inch in length. They are hatched in a week or ten days after they are laid, and the caterpillars pro duced from them attain their full size when about three weeks old, and then measure about one inch and a half in length. Being of a pale green color, they are not easily distinguished from the ribs of the leaves beneath which they live. They do not devour the leaves at its edge, i but begin indiscriminately upon any part of its underside through which they eat irregular holes. When they have completed the feeding stage they quit the plants and retire beneath palings. or the edges of stones, or into the interstices.of walls, where they spin a little tuft of silk, en tangle the hooks of their hindermost feet in it, and then proceed to form a loop to sustain the fore part of their body in a horizontal or vertical position. On the next day it casts off its cater pillar skin and becomes a chrysalis. This is some• times of a pale green and sometimes of a white color, regularly and finely dotted with black; the sides of the body are angular, the head is sur mounted by a conical tubercle, and over the fore part of the body, corresponding to the thorax of the included butterfly, is a thin projection having in profile some resemblance to a Roman nose.