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Acetic

patient, treatment and poisoning

ACETIC ACID.—Egects : Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, low temperature, impaired respiration. Antidotes and Treatment : Give large quantities of milk, lime-water, and solutions of soap, and keep the patient warm by external means. A small dose of opium may be given to relieve pain.

ACONITE.—Etfects : a tingling sensation, followed by violent pain in the mouth, oesophagus, and stomach ; excessive flow of saliva ; nausea, vomit ing, and diarrhoea ; cold and clammy perspiration ; numbness over the extremities, or sometimes over the entire body ; protrusion of the eyeballs ; muscular relaxation ; sometimes loss of consciousness. The pulse is slow and irregular, and the temperature considerably below the normal. If the dose has been large enough, death occurs from respiratory paralysis. Anti dotes and Treatment: Place the patient flat, with his head lower than the feet, empty the stomach, and apply external heat by means of hot-water bottles If the patient vomits, do not let him change his position, but let him do it in a towel. Artificial respiration should be resorted to.

ALCOHOL.—Egects: Acute poisoning : The muscles are relaxed, the temperature low, and the patient falls into a deep comatose sleep, with stertorous snoring. Chronic poisoning causes cirrhosis of the liver, mental symptoms, great nervous excitement, and disturbances of digestion. Anti dotes and Treatment: For the acute poisoning apply external heat ; also mustard-plaisters to produce local irritation. The stomach should be emptied, and copious draughts of hot coffee administered. A cold applica tion to the head, together with hot-water bags to other parts of the body, is advisable. If possible, keep the patient awake by shaking him, shouting, etc. Chronic poisoning must be treated by gradual diminution of the amount of alcohol taken, and, later, by complete withdrawal of the poison. The rest of the treatment must be directed by a physician, preferably in an institution making a specialty of nervous diseases.