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Balsam of

bandage, fig, cloth, tied and folded

BALSAM OF TOLU.—A balsam obtained from the Toluifera bal a tall tree of Venezuela and neighbouring countries. It has many of the properties of balsam of Peru, but being milder and less irritating than the latter it is used more widely in internal medicine.

BANDAGES.—Surgery employs various kinds of bandages, namely, cloth, linen, adhesive plaister, plaster of Paris, and water-glass bandages. Skill in making these bandages is sooner acquired by practice than from illustrations. It is tant for the layman to know how to make linen bandages, for they are easily applied, and are useful in urgent cases. Illustrations of some of these with directions tor applying them are therefore given.

Bandage to the eve (Fig. 82, a). A folded cloth to cover the sick eye ; another bandage drawn across the forehead and tied around the back of the head, thus keeping the first cloth in a secure position.

A split bandage for the nose is illustrated in Fig. 83. The lower ends are drawn above the ears, the upper ends below the ears and back to the nape of the neck where they are tied together. The same kind of bandage for the forehead and head is shown in Fig. S4.

Sling for the arm (Fig. S2, b). Take an unfolded three-cornered cloth ; put one corner on the shoulder of the arm which is to be supported, bring the right-hand corner and the centre of the cloth under the forearm, which is bent at right angles, so that the right corner of the elbow protrudes. Now draw the second corner of the cloth up over the forearm ; carry it across the shoulder of the healthy arm, and tie it together with the other corner behind the nape of the neck.

Bandage for the elbow (Fig. 82, r). The centre of a folded cloth is placed at the bend of the elbow ; one of the ends of the cloth is brought around the forearm, the other backward around the upper arm, and both are then tied together in front.

Bandage for the hand (Fig. 82, d). A folded bandage is laid over the palm of the hand, brought around over the back of the hand to the wrist and tied at the wrist.

Bandage for the hand and fingers (Fig. 85). A broad, folded cloth is laid across the fingers, and both ends are drawn over the back of the hand toward the wrist. The ends are drawn around the wrist and tied. A similar bandage for the foot is shown in Fig. 86.

Bandage for the loins (Fig. 82, e). A folded cloth is laid with its centre at the back of the upper part of the thigh ; the ends are crossed at the groin, drawn around the loin, and tied.

Bandage for the knee (Fig. 82, g) . A folded cloth is laid with its centre on the kneepan ; one end is drawn over the leg, and the other end over the thigh towards the front, where both ends are tied.

Bandage for the back of the foot (Fig. 82, / and k). A folded bandage is laid with its centre on the sole of the foot ; both ends are crossed at the back of the foot, drawn above the heel and around the leg, and tied in front.

Fig. 82 illustrates the proper enveloping of the leg and thigh with a bandage.