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urine, bladder and drachms

CYANOSIS.---.1 diseased condition in which the skin turns a livid bluish zolour. It is observed in all diseases where there are interferences to respira tion or circulation, especially in congenital malformation of the heart, where it is an incurable condition.

CYSTITIS.—Inflammation of the bladder. Chnnic cystitis is catarrh of the bladder. Among the causes of this disease are irritation of the interior of the bladder by instruments introduced for various purposes ; bacteria which find their way from without by instruments and from within by trans mission from the ureters, the pelvis of the kidney, and the largo intestine ; foreign bodies, as gravel and stones ; obstruction of the urinary tract, as by the enlargement of the prostate due to advanced years ; chemical irritants, etc. The symptoms are intense pain and frequent desire to urinate. Urination becomes difficult owing to the irritation caused by the passing of the urine, which becomes cloudy front pus and mucus, and occasionalIN' bloody. The urine has a very disagreeable odour, due to its decomposition. Fever and a moderate degree of constitutional disturbances are. often present.

Treatment.—Treat the cause—gonorrh(ea, stricture, enlarged prostate, calculus, or gout. In acute cases rest in bed is necessary. Dilute the urine by taking bland fluids by the mouth in large quantities, but alcoholic drinks .ind natural or artificial mineral waters, such as contain much carbonic-acid gas, should be avoided. Warm sitz-baths and full baths are useful, especially where there is difficulty in passing urine. Avoid richly seasoned dishes, and take care to evacuate the bowels daily. Medicines containing an alkali in combina tion with an anodyne, such as bicarbonate of potash, 6 drachms ; tincture of henbane, 4 drachms ; and infusion of uva-ursi, to make 8 ounces—a tablespoonful taken three times a day—will be found effective.

When the disease is chronic, and the urinary discharge mixed with pus, boric acid, taken in doses of ro grains three times a day, for a limited time, has been pronounced a useful remedy. In such a case the bladder may need to be flushed or irrigated with a suitable antiseptic lotion, which should only be done under the supervision of a surgeon.