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Delirium

disease, urine, foods, dislocation, excessive, symptoms, diet and sugar

DELIRIUM TREMENS.—A mental derangement attended by extreme nervous agitation, hallucinations, and sleeplessness, caused by the excessive use of alcoholic liquors. Severe prostration rapidly follow's an attack of this disease, but sleeplessness and nervous excitement are so intense that the sufferer cannot be kept to his bed, and ultimately, exhausted by loss of strength, stupor may follow, and eventually death.

Treatment.—It is imperative that the patient abstain from all alcoholic stimulants ; complete and total abstinence must generally be practised. Next, the efforts tnust be directed toward restoring the animal strength of the patient by subjecting him to a frequent diet of nourishing and easily digested food, such as egg-flips (eggs beaten or shaken in hot milk, and sweetened with sugar), beef peptone, strong soups, and meat extracts. Sleep should be secured by the adininistration of potassium bromide, 3o grains every three hours. Sulphonal and chloralamicl arc prescribed also for this purpose, but must be administered only under medical orders until sleep is iriduced, and not afterward. In every case it is necessary to summon a physician at once, and be guided by him.

acute epidemic disease peculiar to warm climates. characterised by violent fever, pain in the bones, and an eruption on the skin similar to that of scarlet fever. After a period of Irnin dice to five days of incubation, the disease sets in with sudden lever, pains in the heath, joints, and limbs, especially the knee-joints ; catarrhal sympta fins and a lash, which extends over the entire body either in diffuse redness or red patches. The temperature may rise as high as tob° Or 107 Falter., but in about three clays the fever and other symptoms disappear, and the patient remains in a state of profuse perspiration. But a second eruption is likely to take place a day or two later which may last a few hours or several days. The course of the disease is generally favourable, and fatal cases are rare or occur mostly in children suffering from some other illness. In its treatment quinine sulphate is used.

disease ordinarily characterised by excessive urinary secretion. In the form distinguished as Diabetes Mellitus, or persistent glycosuria, in which the urine contains an excessive quantity of sugar, the disease is commonly fatal in the long run. In Diabetes Insipidus, or the urinary secretions, though excessive, are of normal character. The disorder has many symptoms, which may vary in each case ; for this reason it is advisable that it be treated only under medical supervision. The chief

symptoms are increased thirst, increased quantity of urine, loss in unusual fatigue after exertion, mild and wandering pains in the muscles nt the back and limbs, nerve pains, especially in the hips and legs, spasms in the calves at night, diminished sexual desire in man, itching sensation, and moist eruptions of the sexual parts of woman, loosening of the teeth, receding gums around the incisors, weakening of the power of sight, and abscesses of the skin.

These symptoms are not all necessarily present at one and the same tone.

the urine for sugar. For this purpose take only the urine passed three hours after a plentiful meal of bread, milk, and sm„ar. Do not use urine passed at night. Many remedies have been offered for the relief of the disease, but the most important thing to do is to pay strict attention to diet. This should be classified into groups. The first group should embrace such foods as used in judicious quantities form the foundation of the diet : all kinds of meat, eggs, cheese, most vegetables, and all tat substances, especially butter.

The second group embraces foods that are to be entirely exalt le 1, as all sugars and foods containing sugar (as honey, syrup, chocolate. sweetened fruits, fruit ices, etc.). If sweetening of food or drink is much desired, certain substances which have the power of sweetening, as saccharine and crystallose, may be used in minute quantities.

The third group includes foods which, although containing sugar-forming material, cannot be entirely dispensed with, such as bread, potatoes, legu minous plants, rice, barley, oats, milk, and fruits. The last-named have only recently been added to the diet of the diabetic. Of these are sour apples, sour cherries, early oranges, cranberries, and huckleberries The next requisite is a proper division of rest and work, fresh air, muscular exercise, baths, and other applications of water, light, heat, and cold.

DISLOCATION.—The displacement, either partial or complete, of one or more of the bones of a joint. Dislocations are of two kinds : Compound Dislocation is attended by an exterior wound communicating with the joint ; Simple Dislocation is a dislocation without a further wound of the joint or of the soft parts.

Dislocation should be treated only by a surgeon who knows the normal anatomy of the joints. No one lacking this knowledge should interfere other wise than by rendering such aid as may be necessary to so arrange the sufferer's position as to give him least pain. See BONE, FRACTURE OF.