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fruits, cent, carbohydrates, frozen, gradually, water and contain

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FRANGULA.—The dried bark of the alder-buckthorn (Rhamnus frau gala), a slender shrub indigenous to Europe and parts of Asia. Its active con stituents resemble those of CASCARA (which sec), and it is widely employed as a laxative and cathartic.


FREEZING.—Distinction is made between three grades of freezing. The first grade is characterised by bluish-red discoloration of the skin, accompanied by considerable itching and painfulness ; the second grade, by the formation of blisters which are usually filled with a blood-coloured fluid ; and the third grade, by gangrene of the frozen parts. The body of a frozen person is icy cold to the touch, the skin is pale, and the limbs are stiff. The respiration, if present at all, is scarcely noticeable ; and the pulse can be felt only with difficulty. This condition may gradually pass over into death, as is not infrequently observed in persons who, worn out by a long walk or by the abuse of alcohol, lie down in the open air in severe frosts, and fall asleep never to wake again.

The leading principle in the resuscitation of persons who are frozen should be gradual warming. The following method is an appropriate one : Remove the frozen individual into an unheated room ; disrobe him care fully ; rub the body with cold, wet towels, or with snow ; or place him in a full bath of cold water (6i° to 64° F.). Continue rubbing the body slowly, and gradually raising the temperature of the bath to S6° F. in the course of two to three hours. After the limbs have become a little more movable, resort to artificial respiration if necessary. When the patient begins to breathe spontaneously he should be placed in an unheated bed, and covered with blankets. The room should then be gradually heated to a moderate temperature ; and later the patient may be rubbed with towels gradually made warmer and warmer. As soon as the patient is able to swallow, he may be given wine or other alcoholic beverages, as well as tea or coffee in large quantities. Consciousness is not fully restored until several hours have passed ; sometimes only after days.


FRUITS.—The most important edible fruits are : the apple, pear, orange, lemon, banana, grape, peach, cherry, raspberry, strawberry, blackberry, pineapple, and fig. They all contain a large percentage of water,

a moderate amount of carbohydrates, and small quantities of protein and fat. The table on page 446 shows the composition of the fruits enumerated above.

The process of drying lowers the percentage of water to about 20, and increases that of carbohydrates to about 70.

The nutritive value of fruits is comparatively small, depending chiefly on the percentage of carbohydrates which they contain. They influence the system beneficially, however, on account of their salts and acids, for which reason they are to be especially recommended to persons suffering from habitual constipation. Fruits also tend to stimulate the appetite, a virtue which gives them a value far superior to that of their actual nutrient qualities.

The composition of nuts differs widely from that of the fruits considered in the foregoing. With few exceptions, they contain very little water (4 to 10 per cent.), while their percentages of carbohydrates, protein, and fat are high. The almond, for instance, contains more than 2o per cent. of protein, more than 5o per cent. of fat, and nearly 20 per cent. of carbohydrates. Nuts, therefore, contain nutritive substances in abundance ; but they are not readily digested. They are largely used in the manufacture of sweets and cakes ; while some nuts yield valuable salad-oils. For such fruits as the tomato, melon, cucumber, etc., see VEGETABLES.

FRUIT-WINES.--Several varieties of fruits and berries are used for the manufacture of wines. Among these are huckleberries, currants, goose berries, pears, and apples. The mode of preparation is much the same as that of grape-wine. The fruits are pressed, and the juice left to natural fermentation until it is ripe for bottling. To currant and huckleberry wines a large quantity of sugar is usually added at the beginning of fermentation, thus increasing their contents of alcohol to as much as i6 per cent. Cider is generally prepared from apple-juice, and of ten contains about 5 per cent. of alcohol, or the same amount as strong beer.

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