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Diseases Cesophagus
Cesophagus, Diseases Of.葉he Oesophagus, Or Gullet, Is A Membranous Tube About Nine Inches In Length, Which Is Connected With The Stomach, And Which Serves As A Passage For Food (see Introductory Chapters, S. V. Organs Of Digestion [pp. 147-1_0]). It Is Subject To A Number Of Affections, Which May Be ...

Diseases Cornea
Cornea, Diseases Of.耀ee Eye, Diseases Of. Corns.葉hickenings Of The Horny Layer Of The Skin, Forming Circular Or Oval Callosities Over A Joint, Usually Over The Little Toe. The Painful Ness Of The Corn Distinguishes It From Other Callosities. It Is Not Situated As A Smooth, Horny Layer Upon The Underlying ...

Diseases Ear
Ear, Diseases Of.妖iseased Conditions Of The Auditory Apparatus May Involve Either The External Parts Of The Ear (the Concha), The External Auditory Canal, Or The Internal Ear. Middle-ear Inflammations (which See) Usually Proceed By Way Of The Eustachian Canal, Front The Throat Outward To The Middle Ear. 1. Diseases Of ...

Diseases Eye
Eye, Diseases Of.葉he Various Diseases Affecting The Organ Of Sight May Be Conveniently Discussed As External And Internal, Or Those Which Affect The Outer Parts Of The Eye葉he Conjunctiva And The Cornea ; And Those Which Have Their Seats In The Interior Of The Eye葉he Choroid, The Crystalline Lens, The ...

Diseases Eyelids
Eyelids, Diseases Of.葉he Eyelids May Be Affected With Diseases Similar To Those Which Involve Other Parts Of The Skin ; For Instance, Eruptions, Erysipelas, Formation Of Blisters, Suppurations, Furuncles, Carbuncles, Various Forms Of Benign And Malignant Ulcers, Warts, Encysted Tumours, Dilatations Of Vessels, Etc. Dark-yellowish Spots Of Various Sizes Are ...

Diseases Foreskin
Foreskin, Diseases Of.妖iseases Of The Foreskin Are Generally Accompanying Symptoms Of Other Diseases, Especially Of Inflammatory Affections Of The Male Organ. A Congenital Deformity Of Frequent Occurrence Is Phimosis. This Condition Consists In An Abnormal Constriction Of The Prepuce, Which Makes It Exceedingly Difficult, If Not Altogether Impossible, To Uncover ...

Diseases Heart
Heart, Diseases Of.----as Pointed Out In The Chapters On Anatomy, The Heart Is To Be Considered As A Two-sided, Muscular Pump. On One Side It Pumps Blood Into The Lungs To Be Aerated葉he Lesser Circulation ; On The Other It Pumps Blood Into The Arteries To Be Carried To All ...

Diseases Intestines
Intestines, Diseases Of.葉he Most Important Of These Is Con Stipation (which See). Other Affections Are Intestinal Catarrh, Intestinal Occlusion, Tuberculosis Of The Intestine, And Tumours Of The Intestine. Certain Diseases In Which The Intestines Are Involved Are Treated Under Separate Headings, As Cholera, Dysentery, T2tc. Intestinal Catarrh May Be Either ...

Diseases Intestines
Intestines, Diseases Of.葉here Are A Number Of Affections Of The Intestines. The Most Important Are Constipation (which See), Intestinal Catarrh, Intestinal Occlusion, Tuberculosis Of The Intestine, And Tumours Of The Intestine. Certain Diseases In Which The Intestines Are Mainly Involved Are Discussed Under Their Respective Headings. See Cholera ; Dysentery ...

Diseases Kidneys
Kidneys, Diseases Of.葉he Kidneys Being Organs Of Very Complex Structure, It Is Natural That They May Become Diseased In Various Ways. Only The More Important Affections Of These Organs Are Here Discussed. Bright's Disease.擁nflammation Of The Urinary Tubes, Causing Degenera Tion Of The Kidneys. This Affection Has Been So Named ...

Diseases Larynx
Larynx, Diseases Of.葉he Vocal Cords And Their Surrounding Structures Are Subject To A Large Number Of Affections. Exposure To Cold Or To The Action Of Irritating Gases May Cause Simple Catarrhal Inflamma Tion, Which May Terminate In Early Recovery Or Pass Into A Chronic Condition. The Affection Is Often Aggravated ...

Diseases Liver
Liver, Diseases Of.葉he Liver Is A Very Much Abused Organ. In The Minds Of Most People The Liver Is Always At Fault ; While. As A Matter Of [act, The Liver Is One Of The Most Accommodating Organs Of The Body. It Is Rarely Sick, And Usually Made So Only, ...

Diseases Mastoid
Mastoid, Diseases Of.-1n Acute Or Chronic Suppurative Inflamma Tions Of The Middle Ear (" Running From The Ear ''), The Suppuration May Extend To The Mastoid Process, A Conical Prominence Of The Temporal Bone Situated Behind The Car (see P. 121 And Fig. 28), And Fill Its Cells \vith Pus. ...

Diseases Nails
Nails, Diseases Of.葉he Nails, Like The Hair, Being Developed From T He Skin, It Is Obvious That A Number Of Diseases Affecting The Skin May Affect The Hair And The Nails Also. This Is Particularly True Of The Nails, Owing To Their Peculiar Anatomical Structure. The Greater Portion Of A ...

Diseases Of Brain
Brain, Diseases Of.- In Addition To Meningitis, Cerebral Apoplexy, Dropsy Of The Brain, And Softening Of The Brain, There Are Other Affections Of This Organ Which Shall Be Discussed Briefly In This Space. Disturbances Of The Circulation Of The Blood In The Brain Are Among The More General Causes Of ...

Diseases Ovarian Tubes
Ovarian Tubes, Diseases Of.預mong The Diseases Affecting The Ovarian Tubes The Most Important Is Inflammation, Due To An Extension Of An Inflammatory Process In The Uterus. This May Be Clue Either To An Infection With Gonorrhoea From The Male, Or To Wounds Received During Childbirth. Involvement Of The Peritoneum May ...

Diseases Ovaries
Ovaries, Diseases Of.擁nflammation Of These Organs Usually Results From An Extension Of A Similar Process In The Uterus Or In The Tubes. If The Inflammation He Very Severe, One Or Both Ovaries May Suppurate, And Death Follow. Where The Course Of The Inflammation Is More Chronic In Character, A Painful ...

Diseases Pleural Cavity
Pleural Cavity, Diseases Of.擁n Addition To Diseases Of Inflammatory Origin, A Number Of Other Affections May Occur In The Thoracic Cavity. In General Dropsy, Especially When Due To Heart Or Kidney Disease, Fluid Collects Also In This Cavity, Usually On Both Sides. Effusions Of Blood Are Most Frequently The Result ...

Diseases Rectum
Rectum, Diseases Of.葉he Rectum Is The Lower End Of The Large Intestine, And Extends From The Sigmoid Flexure To The Anus (see P. 149). This Part Of The Intestinal Tract May Be The Seat Of A Number Of Severe And Painful Diseases. The Most Common Of These Affections Is Due ...

Diseases Skin
Skin, Diseases Of.葉he Skin Being Easily Accessible To The Eye As \yell As To The Palpating Finger, Changes In Its Appearance Are Readily Observed Even By Laymen. Many Such Changes Are Not Due To Skin-diseases Proper, But Are Either Temporary Or Long-lasting Symptoms Caused By Internal Affections (chlorosis ; Cyanosis ...

Diseases Stomach
Stomach, Diseases Of.葉he Stomach Is Liable To A Number Of Acute And Chronic Affections, Which Exhibit More Or Less Analogous Symptoms. Under The General Term Dyspepsia Is Understood Only A Symptom Of Stomach Disease. The More Common General Signs Of Dyspepsia Are : Dis Comfort Or Pain, Before Or After ...

Diseases Thyroid Gland
Thyroid Gland, Diseases Of.葉he Thyroid Gland Is An Organ Situated In The Neck, And Belonging To The Group Of What Are Called The Ductless Glands (see P. 143). These Are Structures Which, Although Resembling Other Glands (like The Pancreas Or Salivary Glands) In Their General Make-up, Differ From These In ...

Diseases Tongue
Tongue, Diseases Of.要arious Diseases Of The Mouth Are Accom Panied With Inflammation Of The Mucous Membrane Of The Tongue. The Tissue Of The Tongue May Become Inflamed After Insect Bites, As A Consequence Of Burning With Hot Food, After Slight Wounds, Or During The Course Of Anthrax, Erysipelas, Abdominal Typhoid, ...

Diseases Womb Uterus
Womb (uterus), Diseases Of.葉he Womb Is One Of The Internal Organs Of Generation In The Female, And Is Suspended In The Pelvis By Means Of Broad Ligaments (see Pp. 167-168). It May Be Entirely Absent, In Which Case Menstruation Does Not Occur, And There Is No Possibility Of Conception. If ...

Diseases Of Bladder
Bladder, Diseases Of ; Brain Apoplexy Of ; Menstruation ; Stomach, Diseases Of ; Womb, Diseases Of. Hiemorrhoids.溶odular Swellings Of The Blood-vessels (veins) At The Lowest Point Of The Rectum, Inside Or Outside The Anus. The Disease, Which Is Of Very Frequent Occurrence In Both Sexes, Generally Sets In After ...

Diseases Of Face
Face, Diseases Of. -.\ Number Of Affections May He Localised In The Facial Region. These May Involve The Sensory Nerves, Giving Rise To Pain, Facial Neuralgias, Etc., Chief Of Winch Are Those Due To Defective Teeth ; Or They May Involve The Facial Motor Nerves, Causing Facial Spasms (tics), Or ...

Diseases Of Facebladder
Bladder, Diseases Of ; Face, Diseases Of. For Paralysis Of The Muscles Of The Eye, See Squinting. Paranoia.耀ee Insanity. Parasites.用arasites Are Living Plants Or Animals Which Live Either Temporarily Or Continuously On Or In The Bodies Of Other Plants Or Animals, And Draw Their Nourishment From Their Host. It Is ...

Disposal Dead
Dead, Disposal Of.熔wing To The More Or Less Rapid Disintegration Of The Body After Death, The Corpse Becomes A Menace To Health. Hence The Earliest Possible Removal Of The Corpse From The Dwelling Is Necessary, Especially When The Extent Of The Residence Is Limited, Or When The Deceased Has Died ...

Disturbances Consciousness
Consciousness, Disturbances Of.幼onsciousness Is The Term Applied To The Conception Entertained By An Individual, Not Only Regarding His Own Personality, But Also Concerning Time And Space. A Person Can Fulfil The Duties Of His Daily Life In A Proper Manner Only When His Conscious Ness Is Unrestricted And His Will ...

Disturbances Sight
Sight, Disturbances Of.葉he Power Of Vision May Be Affected By A Great Variety Of Disturbances, Congenital As Well As Acquired. These May He Caused By A Diseased Condition Of Any Part Of The Eye, Or They May Result From Deviations From The Normal Which Cannot Properly Be Spoken Of As ...

Domestic
Domestic Remedies.葉he Following Most Prominent Domestic Remedies Are Arranged In Different Groups, According To Their Action : Purges : Prune Jam, One Or Two Heaping Teaspoonfuls ; Pure Olive Oil, One Or Two Tablespoonfuls ; Castor-oil, A Teaspoonful To A Tablespoonful, According To The Age Of The Patient. Children Can ...

Dovers Powder Pulvis Ipecacuanhje
Dover's Powder (pulvis Ipecacuanhje Et Opii).預 Compound Powder Consisting Of Ten Parts Of Ipecac, Ten Parts Of Opium, And Eighty Parts Of Potassium Sulphate. It Is Used As A Pain-allaying Remedy In Many Non-febrile Affections. In Dysentery And Diarrhoea Its Action Is Often Very Grateful. The Dose Is From 5 ...

Dwelling Places
Dwelling-places. Man's Comfort, His Happiness, And The Health Of His Family Depend To A Great Extent Upon The Character Of His Dwelling Place. A Dark, Narrow, Dirty, And Noisy House Is Not Conductive To Con Tentment, And Is Often The Reason Why A Man Instead Of Finding His Centre Of ...

Eclampsia
Eclampsia, Infantile..a Nervous Affection Of Infants, Charac Terised By Convulsions. This Symptom, Which May Appear In Milder Or Severer Forms, Is Never A Disease Of Itself, But Is Always A Result Of Other Affections. The Most Common Causes Are : Beginning Measles, Diphtheria, Scarlatina, Meningitis, Catarrh Of The Stomach Or ...

Effusion Of
Effusion Of Fluid..\n Accumulation Of Fluid May Take Place In A Joint In Consequence Of Inflammation (see The Paragraphs Following). Inflammation.葉his Is Usually A Very Serious Affection, The More Serious The Larger The Joint Involved. The Seriousness Is Due To The Fact That The Function Of The Affected Joint May ...

Electrical
Electrical Accidents.葉he Maximum Tension Of An Electric Cur Rent Which A Human Being Can Endure Is About 5oo Volts. The Alternating Current As A General Thing Is More Dangerous Than The Direct Current, And Fatalities Have Been Reported Where The Individuals Grasped Two Conductors In Which The Tension Of The ...

Enlargement Nasopharyngeal Tonsil
Nasopharyngeal Tonsil, Enlargement Of.葉he Geal Tonsil Is Called Also The Pharyngeal Or Third Tonsil. When It Is Enlarged One Speaks Of Proliferations In The Nasopharyngeal Space. This Tonsil Cannot Be Seen When The Mouth Is Open, And It Should Not Be Founded With The Palatal Tonsils Situated To The Right ...

Enuresis Wetting The
Enuresis (wetting The Bed).預t About The End Of The First Rear, Or At Least During The Second, Children Should Be Taught How To Keep Them Selves Dry During Both Day And Night. When Normal And Mentally Sound Children Wet The Bed After They Are Three Years Of Age, This Is ...

Epilepsy A
Epilepsy.--a Disease Of The Nervous System, Occurring Periodically, And Characterised By Disturbances Of Consciousness. 1 T Is Usually, Though Not Invariably, Accompanied By Complete Loss Of Consciousness And By Con Vulsions. All The Causes Of The Disease Have Not Yet Been Fully Determined. Heredity Is Probably Of Considerable Importance In ...

Erysipelas
Erysipelas (rose-rash).預n Inflammatory Disease Of The Skin, Accompanied By Fever, And Caused By The Entrance Of Certain Micro Organisms (cocci). It Always Starts From An Injured Part Of The Skin Or Mucous Membranes ; Either From A More Extensive Wound Or From An Insignifi Cant Abrasion Which Is Apt To ...

Ether Chloroform
Chloroform, Ether, And Nitrous Oxide Gas.容ffects : These Drugs May Produce Death Either By Inhalation Or When Taken By Mouth. They Probably Act By Depressing The Motor Nerves Supplying The Blood Vessels, So As To Cause Complete Paralysis Of Vital Centres. They May Also Cause Death By Interfering With Respiratory ...

Exophthalmic Goitre
Exophthalmic Goitre (known Also As Basedow's Disease, And As Graves' Disease).洋orbid Protrusion Of The Eyeballs, With Goitre, And Disordered Action Of The Heart. The Disease Was Described In 1843 By A German Physician, Basedow. And Also By Graves, An Englishman. It Usually Appears In Families Where There Is Present A ...

Fceniculum
Fceniculum (fennel).葉he Dried Fruit Of Fcenic Ulum Vulgare, A Herb Extensively Grown In Southern Europe. In The United States It Has More Or Less Escaped From Cultivation, And Become Naturalised. It Contains A High Percentage Of Volatile Oil, The Most Active Constituents Of Which Are Camphors. Fennel Is Useful As ...

Fish Skin Disease
Fish-skin Disease (ichthyosis).預 Disease Characterised By Dry Ness Of The Skin Of The Entire Body. The Natural Fat Of The Skin Is Absent ; It Is Rough And Lustreless, And Appears As If Covered With Dust. The Upper Most Layer Of The Skin Is Variously Fissured, Especially On Extensor Surfaces, ...

Food For The
Food For The Sick.耀ee The Standard Physician, Pages 698-7o5. Fractures Of The Bone.耀ee Under Bones, Fracture Of. Freckles.耀mall Spots On The Skin Due To The Increase Of Colouring Matter In The Epidermis. Freckles Commonly Occur In Large Numbers, And May Be Either Inborn Or Caused By Exposure To The Sun. ...

Foreign Bodies Cesophagus
Cesophagus, Foreign Bodies In.葉he Fact That Foreign Bodies, As Teeth, Bones, Coins, Pins, Needles, Etc., Find Their Way Into The Cesophagus May Be Due To Accident Or To Holding Of Such Articles In The Mouth. Treatment.謡hen The Foreign Body In The Cesophagus Has Not Accidentally Fallen Into The Stomach, Or ...

Foreign Bodies Esophagus
Esophagus, Foreign Bodies In.庸oreign Bodies Not Infrequently Find Their Way Into The Pharynx Or The Oesophagus. Teeth, Teeth-plates, Hones, Needles, Fish Bones, Etc., Are Often Swallowed Accidentally, And May Remain In The Pharynx Or In The Muscular Wall Of The (esophagus, Generally Lodged Sideways. They Cause Contraction Of The Oesophagus, ...

Fractures
Fractures 耀ee Bone, Fractures Or. Frangula.葉he Dried Bark Of The Alder-buckthorn (rhamnus Frau Gala), A Slender Shrub Indigenous To Europe And Parts Of Asia. Its Active Con Stituents Resemble Those Of Cascara (which Sec), And It Is Widely Employed As A Laxative And Cathartic. Freckles.耀ee Skin, Care Of. Freezing.妖istinction Is ...

Fractures Of Bone
Bone, Fractures Of.- -complete Breaking Of A Bone Is Designated As Frac !ure. If The Break Affects Only A Part Of A Bone Section, It Is Called An Infraction : If Only Cracks And Clefts Are Caused, It Is Called A Lorr Fissure, Or At Times A Green Slick Iraclure ...

Gall Stones
Gall-stones. 預 Solid Stone-like Substance Found In The Gall-bladder, Liver, Or Hepatic Ducts. Treatment.葉o Prevent The Disease, Regulate The Diet, Eating Only Simple Food In Moderate Quantities. Take Plenty Of Bodily Exercise, But Select It Carefully ; Curative Gymnastics Will Be Found Helpful. That Regular Movements Of The Bowels Be ...

Gastric
Gastric Fever.幼atarrh Of The Stomach (which See), Accompanied By A Marked Degree Of Fever And Severe Symptoms, As Headache, Dizziness, Delirium. The Term Is Sometiines Applied To Typhoid Fever. Treatment.葉his Includes The Use Of Cold Compresses To The Head, Cold Packs, Etc., Together With Measures Directed To Remove Digestive Disturbances. ...