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JAUNDICE. A morbid condition due to obstructed exPcretion of bile and to faulty metamorphosis of bile-pigment, characterised by constipation, yellowness of the skin, conjunctiva! of the eyes, and of the fluids and tissues of the body. The bile not being discharged through the intestine as usual causes the stools to become clay-coloured or white, whereas the urine becomes dark like porter. Itching, vomiting, nausea, diarrluea, or constipation, loss of appetite, an offensive taste in the mouth, flatulence, belching and pains in the regions of the stomach may also be accompanying symptoms.

Treatment.—The treatment is both medical and dietetic. Nledical aid is required to determine whether the attack is due to slight gastro-intestinal derangement or whether some more serious disease endangering life is respon sible for the condition. In existing catarrhs of the stomach the diet consists oi toasts, zwieback, bland soups, vegetables, and stewed fruits ; later, eggs and lean meat may be added. All fatty foods are to be avoided. :Mineral waters are useful. One grain doses of calomel or pills containing one to two grains of extract of etionymin are often beneficial.

Drink water freely and take ammonium chloride, 5 to io grains three times a day, or sodium phosphate, r teaspoonful three times a day. A glass of bitter water, such as Abilena or Apenta, Carlsbad. or Hunyadi Janos, should be taken in the morning. Pain can be overcome by a hot linseed poultice (SCC ABDOMINAL PAINS), applied to the liver region To alleviate the itching of the skin, wash it with cold water to which citric acid (lemon-juice) or vinegar has been added, or take warm baths in which a little soda has been dissolved.

The mineral spas most in vogue for jaundice are Carlsbad, Marienbad, and Homburg.

LARYNGITIS.—Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the larynx. This affection is due generally to exposure to cold and damp or to the inhalation of irritating vapour. It is often aggravated by excessive smoking, by prolonged use of the vocal cords in speaking or singing, by the regular use of strong spices, and of alcoholic drinks. In some respects laryngitis resembles CROUP (which see), and in a very severe case, tracheotomy might become necessary, so medical guidance is always advisable.

Treatment.—The air of the room in which the patient stays should be rendered moist, either through a wet towel hung up near the stove or fire, the lower end resting in a vessel filled with water, or through stcam liberated from boiling water. A croup-kettle or cresoline lamp may also be used to advantage (see CRouP). The patient may take 3o grains of potassium citrate or 20 grains of potassium bicarbonate in solution three times a day. Troches of ammonium chloride will give relief.

Externally apply an ice-bag to the throat, or paint it with iodine. If the throat-spray is available, it should be used with Dobell's solution (this consists of 1-5 per cent. of sodium borate and sodium bicarbonate, and o.3 per cent. of phenol, with glycerine and water). Instead of Dobell's solution there inay be used 5 grains of zinc acetate to an ounce of water ; or alum, 5 grains to an ounce of water.

To assist nature in acute laryngitis, the patient should remain indoors, abstain from smoking, speak as little as possible, take inhalations of steam or oil of pine, drink warm mineral waters, with or without milk, and place a cold compress around the neck at night, allowing it to become warm. See also DISEASES OF THE LARYNX THE STANDARD PHYSICIAN, pages 593-596.

LEAD-POISONING.—This may occur as the result of swallowing sugar of lead or of white-lead pigment, but as a rule it occurs insidiously among persons engaged in handling lead, as smelters, lead-pipe workers, typefounders, typesetters, etc., and such as use lead-pigments and glazes, and furriers, hatters, and dyers who employ lead sulphate for dyeing purposes, Treatment.—In acute lead-poisoning, induce vomiting freely ; give milk and eggs beaten up in water, demulcent drinks, and a solution of Glauber's salt or Epsom salt (1 to 2 tablespoonfuls in a pint of water), or dilute sulphuric acid (3o drops) in a tumblerful of water. In chronic lead-poisoning, a physician should be consulted at once.