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Gelatinum
Gelatinum (gelatine).—the Dried Product Obtained From The Skin, Ligaments, And Bones Of Animals After Treatment By Boiling And Removal Of Water. Gelatine Is Insoluble In Cold Water, But Swells On Immersion, And Absorbs A Quantity Of Water Equal To Io Per Cent. Of Its Weight. It Is Soluble In Boiling ...

German
German Measles.—one Of The Infectious Fevers \vith An Incubation Period Of From One To Three Weeks. The Characteristics Of The Disease Are Heaviness And Depression, Headache, And Loss Of Appetite For A Few Hours Before The Rash Appears. The Glands Of The Neck Are Swollen And The Temperature Rises Usually ...

German Measles
German Measles (rubella).—for Some Time It Was An Open Question Whether Rubella Was An Independent Disease Or Merely A Variety Of Measles Or Scarlatina. Only Within The Last Fifty Years Has The Opinion Become Prevalent To Look Upon Rubella As An Independent Infectious Disease. If It Were Merely A Milder ...

Glycyrrhiza
Glycyrrhiza (liquorice).—the Dried Root Of Glycyrrhiza Glabra And Other Species Of Glycyrrhiza, Shrubs Native To Southern Europe, South-western Asia, Persia, And Surrounding Countries. Liquorice Con Tains A Small Percentage Of Volatile Oil And Large Quantities Of Sugar, Gum, And Woody Residue. It Has A Peculiar Characteristic Taste, And Is Exten ...

Harelip And Cleft
Harelip And Cleft Palate.—the Formation Of The Face In The Developing Child Is Accomplished By Outgrowths Which Proceed From The Forehead And The Upper Jaw On Both Sides, Joining In The Centre. The More Or Less Incomplete Union Of These Outgrowths, In Consequence Of Dis Turbances Of Development, Results In ...

Headache
Headache. This Ache Or Pain Is A Symptom Of A Great Many Disorders. For Causes, Diagnosis, Constitutional Treatment, Etc., See The Standard Physician, Pages 5oi-5o.2. Treatment. —the Cause Of The Headache Must First Be Ascertained, And The Treatment Should Be Directed Toward Removing That. Very Often A Powder Of 5 ...

Health Care Of
Health-care Of Children.—under This Heading Shall Be Given Only A Few Hints With Regard To The Proper Care Of Children More Than One Year Of Age, A Thorough Discussion Of The Care Of Babies Being Found Under Nursling. When Children Enter Upon Their Second Year Of Life, A Radical Change ...

Hemorrhage And Its
Hemorrhage And Its Control.—ii Umorrhage Is The General Term For Bleeding, Or For A Loss Of Blood, From The Blood-vessels. Distinction Must Be Made Between Internal And External Limnorrhages. The Loss Of Blood May He Slight, As In The Cases Of Nose-bleeding And Insignificant Cuts ; Or It May Be ...

History Anatomy
Anatomy, History Of.—see Medicine, History Or. Anchylostomiasis.—term Denoting A Special Disease Which Was First Observed In Bricklayers And In Workers In Tunnels, But At Present Is Found Extensively In Mines Throughout The World, Having Been Transported From Place To Place By Infected Miners. It Is Caused By A Worm (anchy ...

History Of Medicine
Medicine, History Of. -for The Beginnings Of Medicine, As For Much Else That Is Of Importance In Modern Life, We Must Look To The Far East, Even To China, Where Civilisation Had Reached A High State Of Development While Europe Was Still In A Primeval Condition. At That Time China ...

Hot Air
Hot-air Bath.—a Bath In Which The Body, Or Part Of The Body, Is Exposed To The Action Of Hot Air For The Purpose Of Inducing Perspiration. In The So-called " Turkish Bath " Several Connecting Rooms Are Heated At Varying Temperatures, From 104° F. To 14o° F., The Bather Remaining ...

Housemaids Knee
Housemaid's Knee. Name Given To A Condition Characterised By A Chronic Swelling In Front Of The Knee-joint. It Is Due To An Inflammation Of The Membrane Lining The Synovial Cavity Of That Joint (see P. T3o), And A Consequent Accumulation Of Iluid. The Affection Has Derived Its Name From The ...

Hydrocele
Hydrocele. -an Accumulation Of Water Between The Testis And The Surrounding Layers. This Condition May Cause Serious Swellings, And Is Very Trying To The Patient. The Disease May Be Either Congenital Or Acquired. When Acquired It Frequently Results From External Injuries To The Testicle, As From A Knock Or A ...

Hysteria
Hysteria. —a Nervous Affection Occurring Typically In Paroxysms Of Laughing And Crying Alternately And Lack Of Self-control. With A Choking, Sensation In The Throat, But Often As A Counterfeit Of Some Organic Disease. It Is An Affection Of The Nervous System, And Is Due Generally To Emotional Causes. For A ...

Infantile
Infantile Paralysis.—see Paralysis. Infection.—the Exciting Causes Of Contagious Diseases Are Either Transmitted Directly By The Patient, His Immediate Surroundings, Or His Excreta ; Or They Are Distributed Over Large Areas By The Medium Of The Air. Infection Through The Air Is Possible With The Readily Transportable Germs Of Influenza, Measles, ...

Inflammation
Inflammation. This Disease Is Most Frequently Caused By Tuberculosis, Although It May Be Due Also To Other Causes, Such As Infectious Diseases (scarlatina, Typhoid Fever, Gonorrhoea), Or Purulent Inflammation Of The Marrow In The Thigh-bone (osteontalacia). The Affection Is Observed More Often In Children Than In Adults, And Is Popularly ...

Inflammation Bone
Bone, Inflammation Of.—as Explained In The Introductory Chapters, The Bone Consists Of Three Parts :, The Compact Bone-mass, The Periosteum, And The Bone-marrow. Inflammation May Involve Any One Of These Parts, And Is Then Designated Accordingly ; Or, As Is Usually The Case, All Three Parts May Be Affected By ...

Inflammation Breast
Breast, Inflammation Of.—a Condition Which Is Essentially The Result Of The Resistance Offered By The Body Against Bacteria Which Have Invaded The Glandular Tissue Of The Breast. In Order To Combat This Invasion, The Organism Sends An Increased Amount Of Blood To The Part, Causing, As A Result, Pain, Swelling, ...

Inflammation Iris
Iris, Inflammation Of.—see Eye, Diseases Or. Iron.—iron As A Metal Is Not Used In Medicine, But In The Form Of Many Of Its Soluble Salts It Has A Very Wide Application. Iron Serves A Very Im Portant Physiological Function In The Human Body, Being The Active Agent In The Exchange ...

Inflammation Parotid Gland
Parotid Gland, Inflammation Of.—see Mum Ps. Parturition.—the Process Of Bringing Forth A Child. Childbirth Usually Takes Place About 280 Days After Conception, And Is Accomplished By Contractions Of The Womb, By The Opening Of The Uterus, And By Muscular Pressure Of The Abdomen. The Contractions Of The Womb, Which Are ...

Inflammation_2
Inflammation. The Human Body Is Subjected To Numerous External Injuries Of Varying Degrees, Which May Cause Disturbances In Its Normal Functions. The System Is Constantly Engaged In Limiting The Effects Of Such Injuries And In Restoring The Natural Conditions ; That Is To Say, In Bringing About A Cure. One ...

Influenza
Influenza (grippe).—an Epidemic, Infectious Disease Which Is Caused By The Influenza-bacillus. It Develops Rapidly With A General Feeling Of Indisposition, Headache, Pains In The Limbs, Chilliness, Nasal Catarrh And Cough, And With The Formation Of Herpes (fever-sores) On The Lips And Face. Influenza Either Restricts Itself To These Manifestations And ...

Injuries Eye
Eye, Injuries To.—lesions Resulting From External Violence To The Organ Of Sight Must Always Be Considered Very Serious. They Demand Immediate Medical Attention, And Preferably That Of A Specialist. Even Slight Outward Evidences Of Injury, Such As Discoloration Of The Eyeball By Blood, May Mean Laceration Of The Membranes In ...

Insane
Insane Asylum.—an Institution For The Care Of Mentally Deranged Persons. Such An Asylum Answers A Twofold Purpose. I T Is Intended As A Hospital Where Demented People May Receive Careful Medical Treatment With A View To Curing Them ; Or, If This Be No Longer Possible, It Serves Them As ...

Insect Stings And
Insect Stings And Bites.—the Stings Of Bees, Wasps, And Hornets Cause Redness And Swelling Of The Skin, Which Usually Recede In A Few Days. Occasionally, When One Eats Fruit Carelessly, The Insects May Reach The Mouth Or Throat, Where Their Stings Often Cause Great Pain. In Exceptional Cases Swelling Of ...

Introductory Chapters
Introductory Chapters (pp. 145-154 Digitalis.—the Dried Leaves Of Foxglove (digitalis Purpurea), A Widely Cultivated European Plant. It Is Extensively Grown In The United States, But More For Ornament Than For Commercial Purposes. The Active Principles In The Leaves Are Glycosides, Four Of Which Are Described At The Present Time. The ...

Jaundice
Jaundice. A Morbid Condition Due To Obstructed Expcretion Of Bile And To Faulty Metamorphosis Of Bile-pigment, Characterised By Constipation, Yellowness Of The Skin, Conjunctiva! Of The Eyes, And Of The Fluids And Tissues Of The Body. The Bile Not Being Discharged Through The Intestine As Usual Causes The Stools To ...

Kephir And Kumiss
Kephir And Kumiss. —beverages Which Have Been Introduced Into Western Countries. From The .1siatic Domains Of Russia, As Remedies For Sumption. They Have Been Designated As Milk-wines, Because They Are Prepared By Fermentation. In Their Native Countries They Are Prepared From Mare's Milk ; In Western Countries, From Cow's Milk. ...

Laughter
Laughter, Convulsive.—see Hysteria. Lavender.—the Fresh Leaves And Tops Of The Larandula An Aromatic Shrub Of The Mint Family (labiatre). The Oil Of Lavender Is Used As A Perfume, And As An Adjuvant In Various Remedies And Hand Lotions. A Few Drops Of The Spirit Are Sometimes Given With Some Simple ...

Lead Acetate
Lead Acetate And Chromate (also Barium Compounds).— Eflects : Inflammation Of The Stomach And Intestines, Vomiting Of White Matter, And Diarrhoea, With Black Stools. In Some Cases, However, Constipa Tion May Occur Instead Of Diarrhoea, There Are Violent Colicky Pains, Profuse Perspiration, Great Weakness, Pain In The Limbs, Small And ...

Lice Boil
Lice. Boil. —"tend Applied To A Collection Of Pus Under The Skin, Which May Occur During The Course Of An Acute Or Chronic Inflammation Of The Skin Or Other Organs. According To Whether The Pus Is The Result Of An Acute Or A Chronic Process, So-called Hot And Cold Abscesses ...

Lightning
Lightning Stroke.—persons Struck By Lightning Are Usually Killed Instantly. In Some Cases There Are No External Evidences Of Injury On The Victim's Body ; In Other Instances There May Be Slight Abrasions, Singed Hair, Holes In The Skin, Small Sloughs Covered With Scabs, And More Or Less Extensive Burns. Characteristic ...

Loss Of A Appetite
Appetite, Loss Of.--a Frequent Accompaniment Of Various Digestive Disturbances, Especially Of Gastric Complaints. It Depends On A Weakened Or Insufficient Amount Of The Digestive Fluids, Particularly Of The Hydro Chloric Acid In The Stomach. The Tongue Loses Its Normal Moist Appear Ance ; It Becomes Dry, And Is Coated The ...

Malaria Intermittent
Malaria (intermittent Fever).—.1 Febrile Affection Characterised By Alternating Attacks Of Fever, Chills, Muscular Pains, And Perspiration. It Is Of Quite Frequent Occurrence In Southern Europe, The United States, And Particularly In The Tropics. In The Northern And Central Parts Oi Europe It Occurs Only In Isolated Places. In The Tropics ...

Maniacal
Maniacal Mental Diseases Are Accompanied By Conditions Of Great Agitation Which May Arise From Various Causes. The Term " Maniacal Delirium " Is Ordinarily Used To Denote Those Mental Diseases Which Are The Reverse Of Melancholia, And Which Are Called Mania By The Alienists. Maniacs Are Cheerful, Lively, And Self-conscious ...

Mental
Mental Diseases.—general Term For Affections Of Those Portions Of The Brain Which Are Connected With Mental Processes. Insanity, Therefore, Is As Truly A Bodily Ailment As Is Pneumonia, Diphtheria, Or Cancer Of The Stomach. All Other Explanations, In Part Result From Entirely Imaginative Conceptions, Are Unsatisfactory. A Mentally Deranged Person ...

Mineral
Mineral Waters.—term Applied To Waters Which Are Naturally Or Artificially Charged With Carbonic-acid Gas, And Some Of Which Contain Also Alkaline, Saline, Or Acid Substances In Solution. Springs Containing Waters So Charged Are Found In Various Parts Of The World. Among European Springs Some Of The More Noteworthy Are Rhens, ...

Mosquito
Mosquito Bites.—see Insect Stings And Bites. Mountain-climbing.—this Is Essentially A Sport Which Should Be Indulged In Only By Healthy Persons, As It Requires Endurance, Resourceful Ness, And Strength. Individuals With Weak Hearts Should Not Attempt The Ascent Of A Mountain, Since This Organ Is Called Upon To Do An Increased ...

Mucous
Mucous Colic.—an Intestinal Affection Nvhich Is Characterised By The Discharge Of Large Shreds Of Mucus. It Occurs At All Ages, Hut Especially In Youth, More Frequently In Women Than In Men. The Causes Are Not Well Known. Excessive Secretion Of Mucus Is The Result Of An Irritative Condition Of The ...

Mumps
Mumps. Inflammation Of The Parotid Glands. It Is An Infectious Disease, Which Often Occurs Epidemically, Especially In Spring And Autumn, Principally Affecting Children And Young Persons. With Slight Fever And In Significant Disturbances Of The General Health, A Doughy Swelling Develops In Front Of And Under The Ear, Extending Forward ...

Muscular Atrophy
Muscular Atrophy. - Diminution In The Volume And Strength Of Muscular Tissue, And Fatty Degeneration Of The Same. The Muscles Are Nourished By Substances Carried To Them By The Blood ; And The Centres Of Nutrition In The Spinal Cord Regulate The Distribution Of These Nutritive Substances So That A ...

Natural Method Of Heal
Natural Method Of Heal Ing.—within Recent Years England And America Have Witnessed An Enor Mous Increase In The Number Of Lay " Healers," Many Of Whom Claim To Heal According To The " Natural Method." It Is Difficult To Explain What They Mean By A " Natural Method Of Heal ...

Nervous Prostration Neurasthenia And
Nervous Prostration (neurasthenia) And Nervousness.— By Nervousness Is Meant An Exhausted, Weak, And Irritable Condition Of The Nervous System. This Irritability Is The Distinguishing Characteristic By Which The Weakness Of The Nerves Is Manifested In Neurasthenia. One Thinks Of Nervousness More As A Quality Of Temperament, Whereas In Neuras Thenia ...

Neuralgia A
Neuralgia.--a Nervous Affection Characterised By Acute, Spasmodic Pains Along The Course Of A Sensory Nerve. Although Every Form Of Pain Is The Result Of A Nerve-action (and, Therefore, A Nerve-pain) Common Usage Designates As Neuralgia, Or True Nerve-pains, Only Those Pains Which, Without Any Visible And Tangible Cause, Appear In ...

Nitric Acid Acidum
Nitric Acid (acidum Nitricum).—an Exceedingly Corrosive Acid, Pale Yellowish In Colour, And Giving Off White Fumes When Exposed To The Air. It Is A Powerful Caustic To Animal Fibres, And Is Often Used In The Treatment Of Warts, Corns, Or Other Callosities. In Cancerous Or Syphilitic Ulcers It Is Likewise ...

Nose
Nose, Red.—a Harmless, Hut Often Very Disfiguring, Affection Of The Skin Of The Face, Caused By Paralysis Of The Facial Capillaries. It Is Charac Terised By A Bright-red To Bluish-red Discoloration, Which May Extend Over Smaller Or Larger Areas Of The Face. Sometimes Only The Tip Of The Nose Is ...

Nourishing Nursling
Nursling, Nourishing Of.—the Most Natural Food For The Infant Is The Milk Of Its Own Mother. See Nursing. If, For Any Reason, The Mother Is Prevented From Nursing Her Baby, Artificial Foods Must He Considered. The Best Substitute For Mother's Milk Is Cows' Milk, Which Differs From The Former Principally ...

Nourishment For The
Nourishment For The Sick.—the Great Importance Of Diet As A Factor In The Treatment Of The Sick Cannot Be Doubted. In Some Cases It Is One Which Is Difficult To Control, And Every Physician Can Give A Number Of Personal Experiences Of A Most Annoying, And At Times Even Tragic, ...

Nursing Sick
Sick, Nursing Of—the Time Has Gone By When, Even In Country Communities, A Sick Person Is Expected To Depend For Nursing Upon Neigh Bours Who " Run In And Take Turns " In Tending The Invalid, Each With A Different Idea Of What Should Be Done, And Agreeing Only In ...

Observation Of The
Observation Of The Sick.—correct Nursing Of The Sick Is Impossible Unless Accompanied By Careful Observation. Care, However, Is Not The Equivalent Of Anxiety. On The Contrary, The Display Of Anxiety Is Harmful To The Patient, And May Prevent The Attentive Observation Of His Systems. It Is Necessary, Therefore, To Proceed ...

Occupation
Occupation Diseases.—there Are A Number Of Conditions Dangerous To Health Which Are Common To Many Occupations. In Certain Instances The Workman Is Exposed To Particular Dangers, Which Are Due Either To The Material Under Manufacture Or To The Conditions Under Which The Work Is Done. In Certain Occupations A Characteristic ...

Occupation Neuroses
Occupation Neuroses. Term Applied To A Series Of Disturbances Which Occur In Occupations Where One Group Of Muscles Is More Or Less Con Stantly Employed. They Usually Disappear, Especially At The Beginning Of The Trouble, If Rest Of The Particular Group Of Muscles Is Enjoined. The Symptoms Do Not Always ...

Or Atropine Belladonna
Belladonna, Or Atropine (also Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, And Solanine).—effects : Dryness Of The Throat, Pain On Swallowing, And Dilata Tion Of The Pupils. The Face Is Often Flushed, With White Patches On The Nose And At The Corners Of The Mouth ; The Temperature Becomes Higher, The Skin Hot And Dry, ...

Or Intermittent Fever Malaria
Malaria, Or Intermittent Fever, Is A Febrile Affection Characterised By Intermitting Attacks Of Fever, Chills, Muscular Pains, And Perspiration. The Disease Is Caused By Micro-organisms Belonging To The Lowest Animal Group. These Organisms Enter The Red Blood-cells And Destroy Them. Mosqui Toes Of Certain Species Transmit The Affection From One ...

Or Spirits Of Wine
Alcohol, Or Spirits Of Wine (called Also Ethyl Alcohol, To Distinguish It From Other Varieties Of Alcohol).—.a Colourless, Inflammable Fluid With A Burning Taste And Manifesting Great Resistance To Cold. Tempera Tures Render Mercury Solid Do Not Freeze Alcohol. It Is Produced By Fermentation From Sugar Solutions, The Sugar Being ...