KEPHIR AND KUMISS. —Beverages which have been introduced into western countries. from the .1siatic domains of Russia, as remedies for sumption. They have been designated as milk-wines, because they are prepared by fermentation. In their native countries they are prepared from mare's milk ; in western countries, from cow's milk. The method of making kephir is the more simple one for domestic use, as it is sufficient to add to one pint of milk a spoonful of kephir granules (which may be obtained in some drug-stores), and to leave this mixture, which must be frequently shaken, from one to three days in a moderately cool place. It should be prepared in a strong bottle, \ vith a close-fitting, patent stopper (see Fig. 246). Numiss, on the other hand, is best made by a qualified manufacturer. If it be desired to make it at home, reliable formulas may be found in most cookery-books, but the purchased article is to be preferred. In some places it is
made from milk anti yeast. The more nutrient constituents of the milk are preserved, and the sugar is converted into carbon dioxide gas and lactic acid, rendering the beverage sparkling, and giving it a mildly acid taste much liked by some people.
Kephir and kumiss are valuable in the treatment of consump tion, scrofula, persistent constipation, intestinal catarrhs, and scurvy. Neither of these beverages, however, should be taken unless the patient's kidneys and stomach are healthy. At the beginning one bottle a day should be taken, gradually increasing to three bottles of kephir a day, and more of kumiss.
KIDNEYS.—For structure and functions, see INTRODUCTORY CHAPTERS (p. 151).