Home >> Standard Physician >> Gelatinum to Or Spirits Of Wine >> Muscular Atrophy_P1

Muscular Atrophy

white, stalk, cap, yellowish, agaricus, muscles and boletus

Page: 1 2

MUSCULAR ATROPHY. - Diminution in the volume and strength of muscular tissue, and fatty degeneration of the same. The muscles are nourished by substances carried to them by the blood ; and the centres of nutrition in the spinal cord regulate the distribution of these nutritive substances so that a muscle 1 I be supplied with such as it is able to utilise in place of those expended. .lotion is necessary for the correct incorporation of the muscle-forming material. •Itiscular atrophy may he brought about by any one of the fol lowing three causes : (r) Insufficiency, or faulty composition, of the blood (as in chlorosis, anzemia, and many disorders of metabolism) ; (2) affections of the centres of nutrition in the spinal cord, or of the nerves extending from them to the muscles, thus depriving the latter of the necessary nerve stimulus ; (3) lack of exercise of the muscles, either because they are affected by diseases (rheumatism, inflammation, etc.) which prevent their being properly used, or because they are restrained by splints or bandages (as in the presence of a fracture of a bone).

Progressive muscular atrophy, or creeping palsy, constitutes a special form of degeneration of the muscular tissue. It occurs hereditarily in some families, often affecting the children, and usually beginning in the legs. Children thus afflicted for get how to walk. They can raise themselves only by constantly supporting their body with their first upon the floor, and then upon the leg, thus virtually climbing up their own legs (see Fig. 244). There arc different forms of this affection. It may first affect the muscles of the thumbs and little fingers (see Fig. 2S5), or it may begin in the muscles of the shoulders and arms (sec Fig. 286). The disease is rarely curable, although improvement, or even arrest, may be brought about in the early stages by massage, electricity, Nvater-treatment, internal medi cation, etc.

MUSHROOM-POISONING.—The eating of poisonous mushrooms results in characteristic symptoms of poisoning. In the more rapid type the symptoms come on a few hours after eating the mushrooms, when a tearing pain is felt in the abdomen. There is violent nausea and incessant vomit ing, which may persist for days, bloody, mucus, watery diarrinea, torment ing thirst, coldness of the limbs, difficulty in swallowing, debility, anxiety, vertigo, and spasms. Sometimes disturbances of vision and delirium resem

bling intoxication may also occur. In a second type of poisoning the symp toms come on later—in from 18 to 24 hours after eating the poison. Until the arrival of the physician attempts should he made to induce vomiting. and a purge should be given. Milk, mucilages. black coffee, Hoffmann's anodyne, and cold compresses to the head are in order.

Of the mushrooms illustrated in Plate XX., the upper three rows show the edible varieties to the left, and to the right the poisonous ones that are apt to be mistaken for the former. The champignon, or Agaricus campastris (t), has a white to brownish cap, rose-coloured (later brownish-black) lamelhe on the under side, and a full stalk. Death's head, or Agaricus (Amanita) phalloides (2), has a greenish, yellowish, or whitish cap, white lamella:, and a hollow stalk. The chanterelle, or Agaricus (Cautharellus)• deliciosus (3), has yellowish-red lamellx, a verdigris colour appearing upon pressure and breaking, and a saffron-yellow or brick-red juice exuding at the points of rupture. In the poisonous chanterelle, or Agarirus (Canlharcllus) tormino sus (4), the lamella: and the juice are both white, the verdigris colour of broken parts is absent, and the border of the cap is provided with white hairs (beard). In the golden agaric, or Agaricus (Amanita) Ca'sareus (5), all parts (except the surface of the cap and the white, loose skin surrounding the base of the stalk) are pale yellow. The fly agaric, or Agaricus (Amanita) muscarius (6), has white lamella:, stalk, and meat, and a bright orange-coloured cap with white spots ; its stalk is bulbous at the base, and has a white ring at its upper extremity. The edible boletus, or Boletus suhlomen tosus (7), has a velvety, yellowish cap covered with a Mt-like skin, yellowish to brownish-green tnhes, and a yellowish stalk supplied with red or reddish brown streaks. Satan's boletus, or Boletus salanas (8), has a smooth, yellowish cap turning blue when broken, orange-coloured or blood-rel tubes, and a stalk which is bulbous at the base, dark red or yellowish in its upper part, and covered Nvith a yellowish-white network.

Page: 1 2