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Aelian Claudius Aelianus
Aelian (claudius Aelianus) , Roman Author And Teacher Of Rhetoric, Born At Praeneste, Flourished Under Septimius Severus And Probably Outlived Elagabalus (d. 222) . He Spoke Greek So Perfectly That He Was Called "honey-tongued" And Wrote In Greek Himself. His Chief Works Are : De Natura Animal Ium, Curious Stories ...

Aemilia Via Or Aemilian
Aemilia Via Or Aemilian Way. (i) A High Road Of Italy, Constructed In 187 B.c. By The Consul M. Aemilius Lepidus, Whence Its Name ; It Ran From Ariminum To Placentia, A Distance Of 176m. Almost Straight N.w., With The Plain Of The Po (padus) On The Right, And The ...

Aeneas Tacticus
Aeneas Tacticus (4th Century B.c.), Greek Writer. According To Aelianus Tacticus And Polybius, He Wrote A Number Of Treatises (inropylp.ara) On The Art Of War; The Only One Extant Deals With The Defence Of Fortified Cities, And Is Chiefly Valuable As Containing A Large Number Of Historical Illustrations. Aeneas Was ...

Aeneas
Aeneas, Son Of Anchises And Aphrodite. In Homer, He Is Represented As A Favourite Of The Gods, Who Frequently Interpose To Save Him From Danger (iliad, V. 311; Xx. 3o8) As He Was Destined To Rule The Surviving Trojans After The War. The Story Of His Emi Gration Is Post-homeric, ...

Aenesidemus
Aenesidemus, Greek Philosopher, Was Born At Cnossus, In Crete And Taught At Alexandria, Probably During The I St Century B.c. He Was The Leader Of What Is Sometimes Known As The Third Sceptical School And Revived To A Great Extent The Doctrine Of Pyrrho And Timon. His Chief Work Was ...

Aeolian Harp
Aeolian Harp, A Stringed Musical Instrument, Played Automatically By The Wind. It Consists Of A Long Narrow Sound Box Made Of Deal Or Pine Over Which Ten Or A Dozen Catgut Strings Of Varying Thickness Are Stretched. The Sounds Are Pro Duced By The Play Of The Wind Across The ...

Aeolina
Aeolina, The Original And More Elegant Name Of The Hum Ble Instrument Familiarly Known As The Mouth-organ, Another Name For It Being The Mouth-harmonica. It Was Invented In 1829 By Sir Charles Wheatstone, Who Also Invented The Concertina, Em Bodying The Same Principle, And Consists Simply Of Free Reeds Arranged ...

Aeolis Aeolia
Aeolis (aeolia), An Ancient District Of Asia Minor, Colo Nized At A Very Early Date By Aeolian Greeks. The Name Was Applied To The Coast From The River Hermus To The Promontory Of Lectum, I.e., Between Ionia To South And Troas To North. The Aeolians Founded Twelve Cities On The ...

Aeolodion
Aeolodion (also Known As Aeoline And Aeolodicon), One Of Several Instruments Of The Harmonium Type, Invented And Developed During The Early Part Of The 19th Century, Having Steel Springs Instead Of The Usual Reeds. A Closely Similar Instrument, Employing Wooden Reeds Instead Of Steel, Was The Aeolsklavier, And Yet Another ...

Aeolus
Aeolus In Greek Mythology, According To Homer The Son Of Hippotes, Controller Of The Winds, And Ruler Of The Floating Island Of Aeolia. In The Odyssey (x. 1 ) He Entertains Odysseus, Gives Him A Favourable Wind, And A Bag In Which The Unfavourable Winds Are Confined. To See What ...

Aepyornis
Aepyornis, A Genus Of Large Extinct Flightless Birds, Com Prising The Family Aepyornithidae And The Order Aepyomithi F Ormes Of The Palaeognathidae ; They Resembled The Moas (q.v.) In Many Particulars, And Inhabited Madagascar Up To, Possibly, 200 Years Ago. They Are Said To Have Been The Origin Of The ...

Aequi
Aequi, An Ancient People Of Italy, Whose Name Occurs Con Stantly In Livy's First Decade As Hostile To Rome In The First Three Centuries Of The City's Existence. They Occupied The Upper Reaches Of The Valleys Of The Anio, Tolenus And Himella ; The Last Two Being Mountain Streams Running ...

Aerarii
Aerarii, A Class Of Roman Citizens Subject To A Poll-tax Arbitrarily Fixed By The Censor (from Lat. Aes, In Its Subsidiary Sense Of "poll-tax"). They Were (1 ) The Inhabitants Of Conquered Towns Who Possessed The Ius Conubii And Ius Commercii, But No Political Rights; Caere Is Said To Have ...

Aerarium
Aerarium, In Ancient Rome The Public Treasury. The Treasury Contained The Moneys And Accounts Of The State, The Standards Of The Legions, The Public Laws, The Decrees Of The Senate, Etc. These Were Deposited In The Temple Of Saturn And, During The Republic, Were In Charge Of The Urban Quaestors ...

Aerated Bread
Aerated Bread. Ordinary Bread Is Leavened By Yeast, The Vesicular Texture Being Imparted By The Consequent Fermenta Tion, Which Produces Carbonic Acid Gas. Dr. Dauglish Invented A Process By Which Bread Is Directly Charged With Carbonic Acid Gas, And To Bread So Lightened The Name "aerated" Is Given. Machinery For ...

Aerated Waters Bottlingmethods
Aerated Waters - Bottling Methods The Apparatus Used In Aerated Water Bottling Is Of A Highly Specialized Nature, Many Improvements Having Recently Been Adopted. The Bottles Are Washed By Machines Of Various Types, Some Of The Larger Being Capable Of Cleansing 7,000 Dozen Bottles Per Hour. The Bottling Units Are ...

Aerated Waters Or Carbonated
Aerated Waters Or Carbonated Bever Ages. These May Be Divided Into Two Classes, Namely, Aerated Table-waters And Effervescent Beverages. The Latter Are Flavoured And Are Known In The United States As Carbonated Beverages, Also As "soda-water," "soda" And "pop" And Include Ginger-ales. Natural And Synthetic Flavours Are Used. Natural Flavours ...

Aerated Waters Thesugar
Aerated Waters - The Sugar Content Sugar Is Specially Manufactured For Use In Aerated-water Pro Duction. It Is Highly Refined By Animal Charcoal, No Blue Material Having Been Employed To Produce Whiteness. Especial Care Is Taken In The Refining Process To Render The Sugar Free From Sedi Ment Or Scum ...

Aerial Law
Aerial Law, The Law Governing Air Travel. Aerial Naviga Tion Is Everywhere Defined And Limited By Law. Some British And American Jurists Still Find Aviation Law Lacking In Substance, Since Few Precedents And No Body Of Judicial Decisions And Opinions Exist On The Subject. With The Presence, However, Of National ...

Aerial Navigation Deadreckoning
Aerial Navigation - Dead Reckoning Navigation. The Basic Method Of Navigating An Aircraft Is Known As Dead Reckoning (d.r.) All Other Methods, Such As Wireless Direction Finding Or The Determination Of The Altitude Of Heavenly Bodies, Serve Only To Check The D.r. Position. Dead Reckoning Necessi Tates That A Record ...

Aerial Navigation Positionfinding
Aerial Navigation - Position Finding. ...

Aerial Navigation
Aerial Navigation, The Science Of Ascertaining The Position Of An Aircraft And Setting Its Course In A Designed Direction. The Possibility Of Applying The Methods And Instruments Used For The Older Science Of Maritime Navigation To Navigation In The Air, Has Naturally Been Thoroughly Explored, But Certain Funda Mental Differences ...

Aerial
Aerial, An Elevated Wire Or Group Of Wires Forming The Principal Part Of A Radio Antenna Of The Open Or "condenser" Type. (see Antenna.) An Aerial For The Reception Of Programmes From Broadcasting Stations May Consist Of A Single Horizontal Wire About 75 Or 1 Ooft. Long And Elevated About ...

Aero Engines Futuredevelopments
Aero Engines - Future Developments Increase Of Size V. Increase Of Gas Pressures.—apart From Piston Area And Piston Speed The Only Way Of Increasing The Power Of An Engine Is To Increase The Mean Effective Pressure. This Can Be Done Either By Raising The Pressure Or Lowering The Tempera Ture ...

Aero Engines Materials
Aero Engines - Materials With The Cutting Down Of Weight, And The Ever More Severe Conditions As Regards Temperature And Compression Ratio, The Problem Of Design Is Bound Up With That Of Materials. ...

Aero Engines Otherproblems
Aero Engines - Other Problems Fuel Economy.—as Mentioned Earlier, The Economical Use Of All Fuel Carried In The Air Is Of Vital Importance. This Means The Uniform Distribution To All Cylinders Of The Minimum Fuel Required Under All Conditions Of Operation. This Uniform Distribution Is A Problem Of Induction Manifold ...

Aero Engines Thespecial
Aero Engines - The Special Problem: Altitude Effect On Engine And Air-screw (air-screw Termed Pro Peller In The U.s.).—under Comparable Conditions The Pressure Developed In The Cylinder Of An Internal Combustion Engine Will Be Proportional To The Weight, And Therefore To The Density, Of The Combustible Mixture Drawn In. At ...

Aero Engines
Aero Engines. Aero Engines In Use In The First Quarter Of The 2oth Century Worked Upon The Four-stroke Constant-vol Ume-ignition Cycle And The Thermodynamic Theory Of Them Was Similar In All Essentials To That Of Any Other Petrol Engine. (see ...

Aerodrome United States
Aerodrome - United States Airport Rating Regulations Of The U. S. Bureau Of Air Com Merce, As Amended July 1, 1932, Quotes The Federal Law As Fol Lows : "the Secretary Of Commerce Shall By Regulation * * * Pro Vide For The Examination And Rating Of Air-navigation Facilities Available ...

Aerodynamics Fluid Motion
Aerodynamics - Fluid Motion The Forms Taken By The Flow Of Air Past A Solid Body Can In General Be Classified As Belonging To One Of Two Characteristic Types. Fig. I Is Typical Of The Flow Around The Majority Of Bodies Not Specially Shaped To Move Easily Through Fluids. The ...

Aerodynamics
Aerodynamics. The Word Aerodynamics Is Applied Both To The Study Of The Disturbances Generated In Air By The Pas Sage Of Solid Bodies, Such As Aircraft, And To The Study Of The Mo Tion Of Free Aircraft Under The Influence Of Air Reactions. The Former Is A Specialized Development Of ...

Aeronautical Articles
Aeronautical Articles. The Subject Of Aeronau Tics Is Treated In This Work In The Following Series Of Articles. Under Flight, Natural, Will Be Found A Study Of Natural Flight, Dealing With The Mechanism Of The Bird's Wing And The Principles Which Underlie Its Use. From This The Reader Can Pass ...

Aeronautics Methods Ofpropulsion
Aeronautics - Methods Of Propulsion The Failure Of The Early Attempts To Fly Was Due In No Small De Gree To The Want Of A Proper Engine; There Was Little Knowledge Of The Power Necessary. Models Were Devised, Worked By India Rubber Cords Or Clockwork, And In 1842 Phillips Built ...

Aeronautics Navigation Andinstruments
Aeronautics - Navigation And Instruments The Pilot Has To Find His Way In The Air As Well As Control His Machine, And For This, Like The Sailor, He Needs Special Instruments. These Are Fixed To The Dash Board Of His Cockpit. Here It Must Suffice To Refer To The More ...

Aeronautics The Airscrewor
Aeronautics - The Airscrew Or Propeller The Use Of A Screw As An Instrument Of Proportion Has Long Been Familiar, And Various Theories Have Been Proposed To Account For Its Action. The Earliest Of These, Due Originally To Froude And Rankine, Is Known As The Momentum Theory; The Screw Is ...

Aeronautics
Aeronautics. The Record Of Man's Attempts To Fly Goes Back Into The Remote Past. The Story Of Icarus Is A Myth Founded Perhaps On Some Early Failure To Imitate The Birds. Leonardo Da Vinci Thought And Wrote About It, And There Are Some References To The Subject In The Works ...

Aeroplane Bibliography G P
Aeroplane. Bibliography.-g. P. Thomson, Applied Aerodynamics (iwo) ; Bibliography.-g. P. Thomson, Applied Aerodynamics (iwo) ; L. Bairstow, Applied Aerodynamics (192o) ; L. Prandtl, "applications Of Hydrodynamics To Aeronautics," Report Of The National Advisory Committee For Aeronautics, No. 116 (1921) ; H. Glauert, The Elements Of Aerofoil And Airscrew Theory (1926). ...

Aeroplane
Aeroplane. The Main Problem That. Confronts The De Signer Of Any Means Of Transport Is To Find A Working Compromise Between The Various Demands Of Those Who Maintain And Use The Service. There Is No Conflict Between The Interests Of The Operator And Those Of The User. Their Common Requirements ...

Aerotherapeutics
Aerotherapeutics. In Addition To The General Use Of Open Air And Sunshine, There Are Several Particular Ways Of Using Air For Therapeutic Purposes. Thus Oxygen Enriched Air Is Used For Those Made Ill Through Breathing Irritant Gases Such As Were Used In Warfare. These Gases Evoke Oedema Of The Lungs ...

Aertszen
Aertszen (or Aartsen), Pieter (15o7-1573), Called "long Peter" On Account Of His Height, Dutch Historical Painter, Was Born And Died At Amsterdam. When A Youth He Distinguished Himself By Painting Homely Scenes, In Which He Reproduced Articles Of Furniture, Cooking Utensils, Etc., With Marvellous Fidelity. An Excellent Specimen Of His ...

Aeschines Bc
Aeschines B.c.) Athenian Orator, The Political Opponent Of Demosthenes. Aeschines And Demosthenes Were Both Members Of The First Embassy To Philip (feb.–march 346 B.c.). Philip's Envoys Appeared In The Assembly On April 15 And 16, And Between These Two Meetings Aeschines Appears To Have Been Won Over To Philip's Interest; ...

Aeschines
Aeschines (5th Century B.c.), An Athenian Philosopher And Orator And A Friend Of Socrates. Diogenes Laertius Preserves A Tradition That It Was He, Not Crito, Who Offered To Help Socrates To Escape From Prison. He Was Always A Poor Man. He Started A Perfumery Shop In Athens On Borrowed Capital, ...

Aeschylus Bc
Aeschylus B.c.), Greek Poet, The First Of The Only Three Attic Tragedians Of Whose Work Entire Plays Survive, And In A Very Real Sense The Founder Of The Greek Drama, Was Born At Eleusis In 525 B.c. His Father, Euphorion, Belonged To The "eupatridae" Or Old Nobility Of Athens, As ...

Aesculapius
Aesculapius, The Latin Form Of Asklepios (' The Name Of The Greek God Of Medicine, The Son Of Apollo And The Nymph Coronis. He Probably Came From Thessaly. The Centaur Cheiron Taught Him The Art Of Healing. At Length Zeus, Who, Being Afraid That He Might Render All Men Immortal, ...

Aesernia
Aesernia (mod. Isernia), A Samnite Town 58m. N.e. Of Beneventum On The Road To Corfinium, At The Junction Of A Road Past Venafrum To The Via Latina. These Routes Are All Followed By Railways To Campobasso, Sulmona And Caianello. A Roman Colony From 263 B.c., It Became The Headquarters Of ...

Aesop
Aesop (gr. A'icrcoros), Author Of Fables About Animals, Gen Erally With A Didactic Purpose, Which Have Given Their Name To A Whole Class Of Stories, Is Supposed To Have Lived From About 62o To 56o B.c. The Place Of His Birth Is Uncertain. He Was The Slave Of Iadmon Of ...

Aesopus
Aesopus, A Greek Historian Who Wrote A History Of Alexan Der The Great, A Latin Translation Of Which, By Julius Valerius, Was Discovered By Mai In 1816. He Is Known As The Pseudo-callis Thenes. (see The References S.v. Callisthenes.) ...

Aesthetics
Aesthetics. If We Examine A Poem In Order To Determine What It Is That Makes Us Feel It To Be A Poem, We At Once Find Two Constant And Necessary Elements : A Complex Of Images, And A Feeling That Animates Them. Let Us, For Instance, Recall A Passage Learnt ...

Aestivation
Aestivation, Literally "summer Residence," A Term Used In Zoology For The Condition Of Torpor Into Which Certain Animals Pass During The Hottest Season In Hot And Dry Countries, Contrasted With The Similar Winter Condition, Hibernation. In Botany The Word Is Used Of The Folded Arrangement Of The Petals In A ...

Aeta
Aeta, A Negrito Tribe Of The Philippine Islands, Woolly Haired, Dark-skinned, Dwarfish (the Male Stature Is About 4ft. 9in.) Inhabiting The Mountainous Districts Of The Larger Islands And Some Of The Smaller. They Are Characterized By A Large And Clumsy Foot With Abnormally Divergent Great Toe. The Social Unit Is ...

Aethelbald
Aethelbald, King Of Wessex, Was The Son Of Aethelwulf, With Whom He Led The West Saxons To Victory Against The Danes At Aclea, 851. According To Asser He Rebelled Against His Father On The Latter's Return From Rome In 856, And Deprived Him Of Wessex, Which He Ruled Until His ...

Aethelbert
Aethelbert, King Of Kent, Son Of Eormenric, Came To The Throne In A.d. 56o. Aethelbert's Supremacy, Described By Bede As Extending In 597 To The Humber, Can Have Been Little More Than Nominal, Though He Exercised Stricter Sway Over Essex, Where His Nephew, Sabert, Was King. An Attempt To Extend ...

Aethelbert_2
Aethelbert, King Of The West Saxons, Succeeded To The Under-kingdom Of Kent During The Lifetime Of His Father, Aethelwulf, And Retained It Until The Death Of His Elder Brother, Aethelbald, In 86o, When He Became Sole King Of Wessex And Kent Till His Death In 865. His Reign Was Marked ...

Aethelflaed Or Ethelfleda
Aethelflaed Or Ethelfleda, The "lady Of The Mercians," The Eldest Child Of Alfred The Great, Was Married About 886 To Aethelred, Earl Of Mercia, To Whom Alfred Entrusted The Control Of Mercia. On The Accession Of Her Brother Edward, Aethelflaed And Her Husband Continued To Hold Mercia. In 9o7 They ...

Aethelfrith
Aethelfrith, King Of Northumbria, Is Said To Have Come To The Throne In A.d. 593, Being The Son Of Aethelric (prob Ably Reigned 568-72). He Married Acha, Daughter Of Ella (aelle), King Of Deira, Whom He Succeeded, Probably In 605, Expelling His Son Edwin. In 603 He Repelled The Attack ...

Aetheling
Aetheling, An Anglo-saxon Word Meaning Originally "of Noble Descent," But Soon Restricted To Members Of A Royal Family, And In The Anglo-saxon Chronicle Used Almost Exclusively For Members Of The Royal House Of Wessex. It Was Occasionally Used After The Norman Conquest To Designate Members Of The Royal Family. In ...

Aethelnoth
Aethelnoth (d. 1038), Archbishop Of Canterbury, Known Also As Egelnodus Or Ednodus, Was A Son Of The Ealdorman Aethelmaer, And A Member Of The Royal Family Of Wessex. He Became A Monk At Glastonbury, Then Dean Of The Monastery Of Christ Church, Canterbury, And Chaplain To King Canute, And On ...

Aethelred Ii Or Ethelred
Aethelred Ii. Or Ethelred (c. King Of The English (surnamed The Unready; I.e., Without Rede Or Counsel), Son Of King Edgar By His Second Wife, Aelfthryth, Was Born In 968 Or 969 And Succeeded To The Throne On The Murder Of His Half-brother Edward (the Martyr) In 978. In The ...

Aethelstan
Aethelstan (c. Saxon King, Was The Son (probably Illegitimate) Of Edward The Elder. He Had Been The Favourite Of His Grandfather Alfred, And Was Brought Up In The Household Of His Aunt Aethelflaed, The "lady Of The Mercians." On The Death Of His Father In 924, Aethelstan Succeeded Him, And ...

Aethelweard Or Ethelward
Aethelweard Or Ethelward, His Torian, Was The Great-grandson Of Aethelred, The Brother Of Al Fred, And Ealdorman Or Earl Of The Western Provinces (i.e., Prob Ably Of The Whole Of Wessex). He Was The Author Of A Latin Chronicle Extending To The Year 975. Up To The Year 892 He ...

Aethelwulf
Aethelwulf, King Of The West Saxons, Succeeded His Father, Egbert, In A.d. 839. Aethelwulf's Reign Was Chiefly Occu Pied With Struggles Against The Danes. After The King's Defeat The Somerset And Dorset Levies Won A Victory At The Mouth Of The Parret (c. 85o). In 851 Ceorl, With The Men ...

Aethicus
Aethicus (=enucus) Is Ter, "the Philosopher Of Istria," The Supposed But Unknown Author Of A Description Of The World Written In Greek. An Abridgment, Under The Title Of Cos Mographia Ethici, Written In Barbarous Latin, And Wrongly De Scribed As The Work Of St. Jerome, Probably Belongs To The 7th ...

Aetiology Or Etiology
Aetiology Or Etiology, Strictly, Science Or Philo Sophy Of Causation, But Generally Used To Denote The Part Of Any Special Science (and Especially Of That Of Medicine And Disease) Which Investigates The Causes And Origin Of Its Phenomena. An Aetiological Myth Is One Which Is Regarded As Having Been In ...

Aetion Or Eetion
Aetion Or Eetion, A Greek Painter, Mentioned By Cicero, Pliny, And Lucian. His Most Noted Work, Described In Detail By Lucian (herodotus Or Eetion, 5), Was A Picture Repre Senting The Marriage Of Alexander And R.oxana. Through A Mis Understanding Of The Words Of Lucian, Aetion Has Been Supposed To ...

Aetius
Aetius (ah-et'i-oos) (fl. 35o), Surnamed "the Atheist," Founder Of An Extreme Sect Of Arians, Was A Native Of Coele-syria. He Studied Successively Under The Arians, Paulinus, Bishop Of Antioch, Athanasius, Bishop Of Anazarbus, And The Presbyter An Tonius Of Tarsus. At The First Synod Of Sirmium He Won A Dialectic ...

Aetius_2
Aetius (died 454), A Roman General Of The Closing Period Of The Western Empire, Born At Dorostolus In Moesia, Late In The 4th Century. He Was The Son Of Gaudentius, Who, Although Possibly Of Barbarian Family, Rose In The Service Of The Western Empire To Be Master Of The Horse, ...

Aetius_3
Aetius, A Greek Physician, Born At Amida In Mesopotamia, Flourished At The Beginning Of The 6th Century A.d. He Was Court Physician At Byzantium. He Wrote A Large Medical Work In 16 Books, Founded On Oribasius And Compiled From Various Sources. Especially Galen (galenos). Eight Books Of The Greek Original ...

Aetna
Aetna, A Latin Hexameter Poem Of 644 Lines Ascribed By The Mss. To Virgil. This Ascription Is Now Universally Rejected, But It Is Obvious That The Author Was An Imitator Of Virgil Who Was Familiar With The Aeneid As Well As The Bucolics And Georgics, And Therefore Lived At Least ...

Aetolia
Aetolia, A District Of Northern Greece, Bounded On The South By The Corinthian Gulf, On The West By The River Achelous, On The North And East By The Western Spurs Of Parnassus And Oeta. The Land Naturally Falls Into Two Divisions. The Basins Of The Lower Achelous (mod. Aspropotamo) And ...

Afars Danakil
Afars (danakil), A Tribe Of African "arabs" Of Hamitic Stock. They Occupy The Arid Coast-lands Between Abyssinia And The Sea. They Claim To Be Arabs, But Are More Akin To The Gaila And Somali. The Tribe Is Roughly Divisible Into A Pastoral And A Coast-dwelling Group. Their Religion Is Chiefly ...

Affection
Affection, Literally, A State Resulting Generally From An External Influence. The Term Was At One Time Employed To Denote The States Even Of Material Bodies, But Is Now Confined To Certain Mental States Only, In Fact, To Certain Feelings. It Is Popularly Used Of A Sentiment Between Persons Amounting To ...

Affettuoso
Affettuoso (ital.), A Musical Direction Signifying That The Composition Or Particular Passage So Marked Is To Be Played With Much Expression And Feeling. Espressivo And Con Espressione Are Other Terms Having Much The Same Significance. ...

Affidavit
Affidavit, A Written Statement Sworn Or Affirmed To Be Fore Some Person Who Has Authority To Administer An Oath Or Affirmation. Evidence Is Chiefly Taken By Means Of Affidavits In The Chancery Division Of The High Court Of Justice In England On A Petition, Summons Or Motion. Interlocutory Proceedings Before ...

Affiliation
Affiliation, In Law, The Procedure By Which The Paternity Of A Bastard Child Is Determined, And The Obligation Of Contributing To Its Support Enforced. In England A Number Of Statutes On The Subject Have Been Passed, The Chief Being The Bastardy Act Of 1845, The Bastardy Laws Amendment Acts Of ...

Affine Geometry
Affine Geometry. An Affine Geometry, As Distin \ Guished From A Projective Geometry, Involves A Definition Of Parallelism. Thus, When From The Definitions And Theorems Of The Ordinary Euclidean Geometry Of The Plane All Those _involving Euclidean Measurement Of Length And Angle Are Eliminated, The Residue Is An Affine Geometry. ...

Affinity
Affinity, In Law, As Distinguished From Consanguinity (q.v.), The Term Applied To The Relation Which Each Party To A Marriage, The Husband And Wife, Bears To The Kindred Of The Other. Affinity Is Usually Described As Of Three Kinds: (i) Direct, That Relationship Which Subsists Between The Husband And His ...

Affirmation
Affirmation, The Declaration That Something Is True ; In Logic, A Positive Judgment, The Union Of The Subject And Predi Cate Of A Proposition ; Particularly, In Law, The Solemn Declaration Allowed To Those Who Conscientiously Object To Taking An Oath. ...

Affonso Dalboquerque
Affonso D'alboquerque) (1453-1515 ), Surnamed The Great, And The Portuguese Mars, Was Born In 1453 At Alexandria, Near Lisbon, And Educated At The Court Of Alphonso V. In 1503 He Set Out On His First Expedition To The East. He Sailed Round The Cape Of Good Hope To India, Where ...

Affray
Affray Is The Misdemeanour Of Breaking The Peace In Public To The Terror Of The King's Subjects. Fighting In Public Is An Affray, But No Actual Violence Is Necessary, And The Offence Is Com Mitted Even Where A Man Arms Himself With Weapons So As To Cause Terror To The ...

Affreightment
Affreightment. Payment For The Carriage Of Goods By Water, More Especially By Sea, Is Called Freight, And A Bargain Made Between The Carrier And The Person Whose Goods Are To Be So Carried Is Called A Contract Of Affreightment. The Law Does Not Require That A Contract Of This Kind ...

Affretando
Affretando (ital.), A Musical Term Having Just The Same Significance As Accelerando, I.e., A Quickening Of The Tempo Or Speed, But With A Suggestion Of Hurry And Agitation In Addition. ...

Afghan Turkistan
Afghan Turkistan, Province Of Afghanistan, Bounded East By Badakshan, North By The Oxus River, North-west And West By Russia And The Hari Rud River, And On The South By The Hindu Kush, The Koh-i-baba And The Northern Watershed Of The Hari Rud Basin. It Is Loom. Long, North-east To South-west, ...

Afghanistan History
Afghanistan History The Geographical Term Afghanistan ("land Of The Afghans") Is An Anachronism As Applied To The Country Before 1747, When It First Became A Separate And Independent State, And Though It Is Now The Official Name Of The Kingdom It Is Not In Common Use Among The Afghans. The ...

Afghanistan
Afghanistan, A Country Of Asia. Estimated Area Is 245,000-27o,000sq.m. (including Badakshan And Kafiristan). Pop. About 12,000,000. It Is Bounded On The North By Russian Turkistan, On The West By Persia, And On The East And South By Kashmir And The North-west Frontier Of India And Baluchistan. Surveys From 1872 To ...

Afiun Qarahisar
Afiun Qarahisar, The Popular Name Of Kara-hissar Sahib, The Chief Town Of A Vilayet In Asiatic Turkey, Nearly Zoom. East Of Smyrna, And 5om. South-south-east Of Kutaiah. Popula Tion (1927), 102,487. Called Nicopolis By Leo Iii. After His Vic Tory Over The Arabs In 74o, Its Name Was Changed By ...

Africa Anthropology Andethnology
Africa - Anthropology And Ethnology North Africa And Egypt.—apart From Egypt And The Nile Valley The Divisions Of Africa North Of The Sudan Are In The Main Political And From The Anthropological Standpoint Almost Entirely Artificial. Not Only Are The Egypto-tripolitan And The Morocco Algerian Frontiers Entirely Conventional, But Even ...

Africa Archaeology Andantiquities
Africa - Archaeology And Antiquities The Boundary Between Negro Africa And "white" Africa, I.e., Egypt And The Northern And North-western Portions Of The Con Tinent, Must Be Both Conventional And Provisional. The Explora Tions Of Reisner At Kerma In Nubia (between The Third And Fourth Cataracts) And Of Garstang At ...

Africa Climate
Africa - Climate Extending From Latitude 37° N. To 35° S., The Greater Part Of Africa Lies Within The Tropics, And Except On Mountains And Plateaux The Average Annual Temperature Is High, Ranging From 62° At Cape Town To 86° At Massaua On The Red Sea. On The Other Hand ...

Africa Fauna
Africa - Fauna Africa, Together With The Deccan And West Australia As Well As Brazil, Forms Part Of The Old Continental Mass Of Gondwana Land, Whatever View One May Take Of The Process Of Separation Of Each From The Others. Gondwanaland Seems To Have Persisted Through Much Of The Mesozoic ...

Africa Flora
Africa - Flora The Character Of The Vegetation Of Africa Is Largely Determined By The Distribution Of Heat And Moisture Coupled With The Great Range In Altitude. Phytogeographically The Continent May Be Pri Marily Divided Into Three Sections : (i) A Northern Extratropical Region, Bordering The Southern Shores Of The ...

Africa Geography
Africa - Geography Africa Is Largely A Plateau, Broken And Elevated In The South And Lower Towards The North, With Fold Mountains Adhering To The Northern Flank, And It Thus Contrasts Very Strikingly With Euro Asia In Which Fold Mountains Of Successive Series In Diverse Stages Of Denudation Occupy A ...

Africa Geology
Africa - Geology Africa Has A Simpler Geological Structure Than Any Other Continent, Although It Has Many Unique Features And Forma Tions. It Consists Essentially Of A Plateau Of Which The Rocks Have Not Been Bent Into Steep Folds By Compression Since Primaeval Times, Except For A Strip In Cape ...

Africa History
Africa - History The Ancient History Of Africa Is Shrouded In Mystery And The Earliest Records Of That Continent And Its People Are Far From Trustworthy. See Africa, Roman Egypt. ...

Africa Modern Exploration
Africa - Modern Exploration During The 18th Century There Is Little To Record In The History Of Africa. The Nations Of Europe, Engaged In The Later Half Of The Century In Almost Constant Warfare And Struggling For Su Premacy In America And The East, To A Large Extent Lost Their ...

Africa Modern History
Africa - Modern History I 1 Th Century There Was A Great Arab Immigration. Even Before This The Berbers Had Very Generally Adopted The Speech And Religion Of Their Conquerors. Arab Influence And The Mohammedan Religion Thus Became Indelibly Stamped On Northern Africa. Together They Spread Southward Across The Sahara, ...

Africa Partition Amongeuropean
Africa - Partition Among European Powers In The Last Quarter Of The 19th Century The Map Of Africa Was Transformed. Af Ter The Discovery Of The Congo The Story Of Ex Ploration Takes Second Place; The Continent Becomes The Theatre Of European Expansions. Lines Of Partition, Drawn Often Through Trackless ...

Africa The Easternprovince
Africa - The Eastern Province Palaeolithic Artifacts.—here Discoveries Have So Far Been Imited To The Sudan, Uganda, Somaliland And Kenya Colony, While Surprisingly Little Is Yet Known Of The Early Pre-history Of Even These Territories. Except Possibly In The Extreme North, Within A Few Miles Of Half A, No Implement ...

Africa The Southernprovince
Africa - The Southern Province Palaeolithic Implements.—artifacts Of Rude Chellean Type, Often Larger Than The Corresponding Implements Of Western Europe, Are Found Over The Greater Portion Of South Africa, Nor Does There Seem To Be Any Reason Why These Should Not Be Regarded As True Palaeoliths Perhaps Of An Age ...

Africa The Westernprovince
Africa - The Western Province Palaeolithic Remains.—itis Only Recently That Stone Imple Ments Of River-drift Type, And Therefore To Be Regarded Provision Ally As Of Palaeolithic Age, Have Been Discovered In West Africa. In The British Museum There Is A Series Of Massive Implements Of Chellean Type, Consisting Of Quartz ...

Africa
Africa, The Name Of A Continent Which Is The Largest Of Three Great Southward Projections Of The Main Land-mass Of The Earth's Surface, Joined To Asia By The Isthmus Of Suez, 8om. Wide. From Its Northern Extremity, Ras Ben Sakka, A Little West Of Cap Blanc In 37° 21' N. ...