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Encyclopedia Britannica

Volume 12, Part 1: Hydrozoa to Epistle of Jeremy

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The Second Socialist International
The Second (socialist) International The Second International Was Constituted In 1889, 15 Years After The Disappearance Of The First. Unlike The Latter, It Possessed No Powerful Central Authority And Its Early Meetings Were Mainly Devoted To Discussion Of The Tactics And Methods Of The Affiliated National Parties, But From 1911 ...

The Secret Service
The Secret Service The Secret Service Supplies Information Regarding Matters Be Hind The Enemy's Front And In His Home Territory, Including Strength And Location Of Reserves, Rear Defences And Lines Of Com Munication, Internal Conditions In The Enemy's Country And The State Of His Resources In Man Power And Material. ...

The Six Systems
The Six Systems The Revolt Of Buddhism And Jainism Helped To Bring About A Critical Point Of View And Led To The Great Movement Of Philosophy Which Produced The Six Systems Of Thought, Where Criticism And Analysis Take The Place Of Poetry And Religion. The Different Sys Tems Are Not ...

The Study Of Inscriptions
The Study Of Inscriptions Inscriptions Were Studied And Quoted By Authors In Ancient Times, By Orators And By Historians—notably By Thucydides And Polybius—as Records Of Political, Economic And Social Interest; They Also Contributed To The History Of Art, And Polemon Had The Nick-name Of Stelokopas Given Him For His Studies ...

The Theory Of The
The Theory Of The Interferometer The Arrangement Sketched In Fig. 5a Represents Schematically The Interferometer In Its Simplest Form. B' Represents The Image Of The Mirror B In The Mirror M, A And B' Being Supposed To Be Not Quite Coincident : It Is Evident That To The Observer At ...

The Third Communist International
The Third (communist) International The Communist International (abbrev. Kornintern) Is The In Ternational Organization Of The Communist Party Of All Nations, Founded In 1919. It Is Also Called The Third International. In Structure And Programme It Differs From The First And Second. Communism Sympathises Unreservedly With The First International, Founded ...

The University Of Illinois
Illinois, The University Of, An Institution Of Higher Learning Situated In Urbana, Ill. It Arose Out Of The Passage Of The Morrill Land Grant Act In 1862, Whereby The National Government Gave Each State In The Union Scrip For 50,00o Ac. Of Public Land For Each Senator And Representative In ...

The Upanishads
The Upanishads The Upanishads Form The Concluding Portions Of The Veda And Are Therefore Called Vedanta Or The End Of The Veda. Their Aim Is Not So Much To Reach Philosophical Truth As To Bring Peace And Freedom To The Anxious Human Spirit. They Represent Free And Bold Attempts To ...

The Vedanta
The Vedanta The Vedanta Sutra Attempts To Set Forth The Teachings Of The Upanishads In A Consistent Way. Its Short Aphorisms Are Unintel Ligible By Themselves. Many Different Systems Ranging From Pure Non-dualism To Explicit Dualism Attempt To Interpret The Sutra. The Chief Of Them Are Those Of 8aricokara, Ramanuja ...

The Vedic Period
The Vedic Period The Vedic Literature Comprises (i) The Four Vedas, Which Con Sist Of Hymns, Prayers And Spells Addressed To The Gods; (2) The Brahmanas Or Ritual Treatises; (3) The Araoyakas, Or The Forest Treatises, Which Constitute The Concluding Portions Of The Brah Manas; And (4) The Upanishads, Which ...

The Yoga
The Yoga The Yoga Differs From The Samkhya In Its Insistence On Mental Discipline And Acceptance Of Theism, Though Its Connection With Belief In God Is Somewhat Loose. God Does Not Create, Reward Or Punish. Union With God Is Not The Goal Of Yoga Endeavour. God Is Only A Particular ...

Thermo Regulators Or Thermostats
Thermo-regulators Or Thermostats Certain Special Forms Of Thermo-regulators, Adapted To The Requirements Of The Particular Incubators To Which They Are At Tached, Have Already Been Described. It Remains Now To Describe Other Forms Which Are Of More General Application. Only Those Kinds Will Be Described Which Are Applicable To Incubators. ...

Tommaso Inghirami
Tommaso Inghirami (1470-1516), A Humanist, Is Best Known For His Latin Orations, Seven Of Which Were Published In 1777. His Success In The Part Of Phaedra In A Presentation Of Seneca's Hippolytus (or Phaedra) Led To His Being Generally Known As Fedra. He Received High Honours From Alexander Vi., Leo ...

Treatment Of Heresy
Treatment Of Heresy England.—the Inquisition Was Primarily The Instrument For The Repression Of All Kinds Of Breaches Of Orthodoxy. Its Work In This Capacity We Will Now Outline For Each Of The Great Countries Of Mediaeval Christendom. England, Whether Before Or Of Ter The Establishment Of The Inquisition, Had Few ...

Try And Poultry Farming
Try And Poultry Farming), The Inlet Flue Similarly Heating And The Outlet Flue Similarly Dis Charging. The Heat-regulating Apparatus Is Identical With That In The Chick Incubator, And The Thermostatic Capsule (s) Is Placed In The Upper Chamber, Near The Head Of The Infant. The Child Is Placed In A ...

Ture
Ture. An International Institution Founded In 1905 On The Initiative Of Victor Emanuel Iii., King Of Italy. A Californian Merchant, David Lubin, Convinced Of The Political As Well As The Economic Importance Of Maintaining A Proper Balance Between In Dustrial And Agricultural Development, Had Come To The Conclusion That In ...

United States
United States Although Taxes On Gains And Profits Derived From Personal Abil Ity As Distinguished From Property—so-called "faculty" Taxes— Were Employed In The American Colonies Before The Middle Of The 17th Century, And An Abortive Effort Had Been Made In The 184o's, No Successful Use Of The General Income Tax ...

Value Of Waterways
Value Of Waterways Economic Considerations Will Play A Part In Decisions That May Be Taken For The Improvement Of Existing Waterways Or The Con Struction Of New Ones. The Question Will Inevitably Arise Whether A Railway Would Not Prove More Serviceable Than A Waterway. The Preference Will Clearly Go To ...

Vicente Blasco Ibanez
Ibanez, Vicente Blasco Spanish Novelist And Politician, Was Born At Valencia. He Became An Im Passioned Political Agitator And Suffered Exile, Hard Labour And Frequent Imprisonment For His Opinions, Although He Was Returned To Parliament On Eight Occasions By His Native City. His Early Novels, Such As Arroz Y Tartana, ...

Vil Electrostatic Instruments
Vil Electrostatic Instruments Electroscopes And Electrometers.—as Their Names Indicate, These Instruments Are Intended Respectively For The Detection And Measurement Of Electric Charges Or Differences Of Potential. Troscopes Were The First Electrical Instruments To Be Devised, And Take Their Origin From William Gilbert (1544-1603 ), Who First Developed The Knowledge Of ...

War Control Of Industry
Industry And Trade, War Control Of. Government Control Of Industry Has Appeared Sporadically In Every Important War Of Modern Times, Under The Form Of Com Mandeering Of Supplies And Means Of Transportation And Produc Tion. It Has Also Occasionally Assumed The Form Of Price-fixing. But, Except In The Rare Cases ...

Wax Finish And Painting
Wax Finish And Painting Instead Of Varnish, Wax Is Often Used For Finishing Natural Or Stained Wood Surfaces. This Is One Of The Oldest Methods Of Wood Finishing. The Material Used Was Formerly Beeswax Dissolved, With The Aid Of Heat, In Turpentine, Or Simply The Plain Pow Dered Wax, Spread ...

Wilhelm Ihne
Ihne, Wilhelm (1821-1902), German Historian, Was Born On Feb. 2, 1821, At Furst And Was Educated At Bonn. In 1843 He Came To England As A Private Tutor, And After Two Years Of Teaching At Elberfeld (1847-49), Became Headmaster Of A School At Liverpool. In 1863 He Returned To His ...

William Ince
Ince, William, English 18th Century Furniture Designer And Cabinetmaker. He Was One Of The Most Successful Imitators Of Chippendale, Although His Work Was Lighter. It Came Between The Massive And Often Florid Style Of Chippendale And The More Boudoir-like Forms Of Hepplewhite. He Was For Many Years In Partnership With ...

William Ralph Inge
Inge, William Ralph (1860– ), English Divine, Was Born June 6, 186o, At Crayke, Yorks., The Son Of William Inge, Sometime Provost Of Worcester College, Oxford, And Was Educated At Eton, And At King's College, Cambridge. From 1884 To 1888 He Was A Master At Eton, And During The Last ...

Worlds Statistics Change Hours
Change ; Hours Of Labour ; Strikes And Lock-outs; Trades Unions; Trade Union Congress ; Trade, World's Statistics, And Kindred Articles Such As Trusts And Trade Organization. All The Main Articles Are Supplied With Full Cross-references To Subsidiary Articles Where Further And, In Some Cases, More Detailed Information Will Be ...