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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Avizandum
Avizandum, A Scots Law Term; The Judge "makes Avizan Dum With A Cause," I.e., Takes Time To Consider His Judgment. Avlona: See Valona. ...

Avocado Pear
Avocado Pear, The Fruit Of The Tree Persea Gratissirna (family Lauraceae), Which Grows In The West Indies And Else Where ; The Flesh Is Of A Soft And Buttery Consistency And Highly Esteemed. The Name Avocado, The Spanish For "advocate," Is A Sound-substitute For The Aztec Ahuacatl; It Is Also ...

Avocet
Avocet (av'o-set), A Long Legged Wading Bird, Conspicu Ously Marked With Black And White, The Avocet (recurvirostra Avosetta) Is Remarkable For Its Long, Slender Bill, Bent Upwards At The Distal End. The Legs Are Long And The Feet Webbed. The Bird In Habits Europe, Africa And Central And South Asia, ...

Avogadros Constant
Avogadro's Constant Is The Number Of Molecules (see Molecule) In One Gram-molecule, The Molecular Weight Of The Substance In Grams. It Is Invariably The Same, Whatever The Substance, Its Value Being Approximately 6.16x And It Is Denoted By The Constant N. Avogadro's Law States That Equal Volumes Of Different Gases ...

Avoidance
Avoidance, From "avoid" (o.fr. Esvuidier Or Evider, To Empty Out), The Action Of Making Empty, Void Or Null, Hence, In Law, Invalidation, Annulment (see Confession And Avoid Ance) ; Also The Becoming Void Or Vacant, Hence In Ecclesiastical Law A Term Signifying The Vacancy Of A Benefice. In General Use, ...

Avoirdupois Or Averdupois
Avoirdupois Or Averdupois (from The French Avoir De Pois, Goods Of Weight), The Name Of A System Of Weights Used In Great Britain And America For All Commodities Except The Precious Metals, Gems And Medicines. The Foundation Of The System Is The Grain. A Cubic Inch Of Water Weighs 252-458 ...

Avon
Avon, The Name Of Several Rivers In England And Elsewhere. The Word Is Celtic, Appearing In Welsh (very Frequently) As Afon, In Manx As Aon, And In Gaelic As Abhuinn (pronounced Avain), And Is Radically Identical With The Sanskrit Ap, Water, And The Lat. Aqua And Amnis. The Root Appears ...

Avranches
Avranches, Capital Of An Arrondissement In The Depart Ment Of Manche, North-west France, 87m. S. Of Cherbourg On The Western Railway. Pop. (1931) 6,251. It Lies On The Slopes And Sum Mits Of A 341 F T. Hill Looking Westward To The Bay And Rock Of St. Michel. At The ...

Avulsion
Avulsion (lat. Avulsio, A Tearing Off), The Forcible Separa Tion Of A Considerable Portion Of Land From The Property Of One Owner And Its Deposit On The Soil Of Another, Caused By The Me Chanical Action Of Water Due To Flood, Change In The Course Of A River Or The ...

Avunculate
Avunculate. The Rights And Duties Enjoyed By The Maternal Uncle (latin, Avunculus) In Many Primitive Societies Throw Light On The Status Of Relatives In The Social Order. He May Have Specific Duties At The Initiation Of His Nephew (his Sister's Son) Or Take A Leading Part In His Marriage Rites ...

Avvakum
Avvakum (162o?-1681), Russian Archpriest And Author, Famous As The Leader Of The Conservative Party In The Russian Church In The 17th Century, Son Of A Village Priest, Was Born At Grigorovo, Near Nijni Novgorod. He Became Protopope Or Rector Of A Moscow Church, And A Conservative Reformer Of The Discipline ...

Awadia
Awadia, A Ga'aliin (arab) In The Berber Province. See H. A. Macmichael, History Of The Arabs In The Sudan (1922). ...

Awaji
Awaji, An Island Of South Japan, 218sq.m. In Extent. It Lies (34° 20' N., 45' E.), Athwart And Almost Closes The Eastern End Of The Island-studded Inland Sea. Awaji ("the Way To Awa") Is The Stepping-stone Between Kyoto, The Old Capital Of Japan, And Awa, The Eastern End Of Shikoku. ...

Awan
Awan, The Name Given To A Dynasty Of Babylonian Rulers From Its Capital City. The Designation Was Later Changed To Awak (in The District Of Kazallu), But Its Exact Location Remains Un Known. It Probably Stood East Of The Tigris And Was Certainly Not Far From Susa. ...

Awl
Awl (o.eng. Ael; At One Time Spelt Nawl By A Confusior With The Indefinite Article Before It), A Small Hand-tool For Piercin€ Holes. ...

Axe
Axe, A Tool Or Weapon, Taking Various Shapes, But, When Not Compounded With Some Distinguishing Word (e.g., In "pick-axe") Generally Meaning An Edged Head Fixed Upon A Handle For A "hatchet" Is A Small Sort Of Axe. In O.e. The Word Was Aex. In British Politics, The Word "axe" Came, ...

Axial Gradients
Axial Gradients, A Term Ap Plied To The Regular Decrease In The Rate Of Protoplasmic Activities, Which Is Ob Served In Organisms Between One Point Of The Body And Another. The Region Where The Rate Is Highest Is The Head-end Of Animals, And The Growing Point Of Plants ; And ...

Axile Or Axial
Axile Or Axial (related To The Axis), Used Technically In Botany. An Axile Placentation Is One In Which The Ovules Are At Tached To The Axis. ...

Axinite
Axinite, A Mineral Consisting Of A Complex Aluminium And Calcium Boro-silicate; The Calcium Is Partly Replaced In Varying Amounts By Ferrous Iron And Manganese, And The Aluminium By Ferric Iron; The Formula Is Hca3bal2(sio4)4. The Mineral Was Named (from Aeive, An Axe) On Account Of The Characteristic Thin Wedge-like Form ...

Axiom
Axiom, A Statement Admitted Without Proof, As That If Two Equal Quantities Are Added Respectively To Two Equal Quantities, The Sums Will Be Equal. The Greek Philosophers Recognized The Existence Of First Principles "the Truth Of Which," As Aristotle Said, "it Is Not Possible To Prove." These Were Called Axioms, ...

Axis
Axis, A Word Having The Same Meaning As Axle, And Also With Many Extensions Of This Primary Meaning. It Denotes The Imagi Nary Line About Which A Body Or System Of Bodies Rotates, Or A Line About Which A Body Or Action Is Symmetrically Disposed. In Geometry, And In Geometrical ...

Axle
Axle, A Pin Or Shaft On Which A Wheel Turns, Or A Shaft Revolving In Bearings, And Having Wheels Affixed. In Carriages And Carts The Fixed Bar Is Called The Axle-tree, And The Ends Are The Axles. In Railway Carriages, Wagons, Locomotives, Tramcars, Travel Ling Cranes, And The Like The ...

Axminster
Axminster, Urban District, Devonshire, England, On The River Axe, 27m. E. By N. Of Exeter By The Southern Railway. Pop. (i 931) 2,327. The Situation Of Axminster At The Intersec Tion Of The Two Great Ancient Roads, Iknield Street And The Fosse Way, And Also The Numerous Earthworks And Hill-f ...

Axolotl
Axolotl, The Aquatic Larval Form, Which May Become Sexually Mature, Of The Salamander Amblystoma Tigrinum. This Larva Was For Long Held To Be A Species Of Perenni Branchiate Urodele (see Amphibia) ; But In 1865, Some Axolotls In The Jardin Des Plantes, Paris, Metamorphosed Into The Sala Mander Form. This ...

Axone
Axone, The Nerve Fibre Process Of A Neuron, Which Conducts Away From The Cell Body (see Dendrite, Neuron, Synapse) . The Axone Is Much Longer Than The Dendrites, And Also Is Frequently Provided With A Myelin Sheath. Myelin Is A Fat-like Material, White In Colour ; Hence The White Matter ...

Ayacucho
Ayacucho, A City And Department Of Central Peru, For Merly Known As Guamanga Or Huamanga, Renamed From The Small Plain Of Ayacucho (quichua, "corner Of Death"). This Lies Near The Village Of Quinua, In An Elevated Valley 11,600ft. Above Sea Level, Where A Decisive Battle Was Fought Between General Sucre ...

Ayah
Ayah, A Spanish Word (aya) For Children's Nurse Or Maid, Introduced By The Portuguese Into India And Adopted By The Eng Lish To Denote Their Native Nurses. ...

Aye Aye
Aye-aye, The Most Remarkable Of All The Malagasy Lemurs (see Primates). The Aye-aye, Chirotuys Madagascariensis, Has A Broad Rounded Head, Short Face, Large Eyes, Large Hands And Long Thin Fingers With Pointed Claws, Of Which The Third Is Remark Able For Its Extreme Slenderness. The Foot Resembles That Of The ...

Aylesbury
Aylesbury, Municipal Borough Of Buckinghamshire, England, Lying On A Slight Eminence In The Fertile Vale Of Ayles Bury, Which Extends North Of The Chilterns, And Includes The Upper Thame Basin. Pop. (1931) 13,382. There Is Little Doubt That The Rich Neighbourhood Was Occupied In Prehistoric Times. In 1239 Henry Iii. ...

Aylesford
Aylesford, A Town Of Kent, England, 31m. N.w. Of Maidstone On The Southern Railway. Population (1921) 3,113. Several Remains Of Antiquity Exist In The Neighbourhood, Among Them A Dolmen Called Kit's Coty House, About A Mile North-east From The Village. The Larger Group Of Monuments Close By Is Called The ...

Aylesham
Aylesham, A New Town In The Kent Coalfield, North Of Dover, England. The First Section, Planned On Original Lines, Was Completed In 1928, When The Population Was About 2,000. The Centre Of The Town, Reserved As A Shopping Square, Lies At The Head Of A Small Valley Whence Wide Roads ...

Aymaran
Aymaran, An Important Linguistic Stock Of South Ameri Can Indians. The Term Has Really No Proper Application To The Tribes Of This Group, Having Arisen Through An Unfortunate Blunder. It Has, However, Become Too Well Fixed To Make Any Change Possible. The Various Tribes Of The Stock, Of Which The ...

Ayr
Ayr, Royal, Municipal And Police Burgh And Seaport, And County Town, Ayrshire, Scotland, At The Mouth Of The River Ayr, 412m. S.s.w. Of Glasgow By The L.m.s. Railway. Pop. (1931) 36,784. Ayr Proper Lies On The South Bank Of The River, Which Is Crossed By Three Bridges, Besides The Railway ...

Ayrshire
Ayrshire, South-western County Of Scotland, Bounded On The North By Renfrewshire, On The East By Lanarkshire And Dumfriesshire, On The South-east By Kirkcudbrightshire, On The South By Wigtownshire, And On The West By The Firth Of Clyde. It Includes Off Its Coast The Conspicuous Rock Of Ailsa Craig, Iom. W. ...

Aysen
Aysen, A Territory Of Southern Chile, Created In 1928 From Parts Of The Provinces Of Chiloe And Llanquihue And Of The Terri Tory Of Magallanes. It Includes Most Of The Chonos Archipelago, The Peninsula Of Taitao, The Large Island Of Wellington, With Many Smaller Islands, And A Strip Of Coast ...

Ayub Khan
Ayub Khan (1855-1914), Afghan Prince, Son Of Sher Ali (formerly Amir Of Afghanistan) And Cousin Of Abdur Rahman, Was Born About 1855. During His Father's Reign Little Is Recorded Of Him, But After Sher Ali's Expulsion From Kabul By The English, And His Death In Jan. 1879, Ayub Took Possession ...

Ayuntamiento
Ayuntamiento, The Spanish Name For The District Over Which A Town Council Has Administrative Authority; It Is Used Also For A Town-council Or A Town-hall. It Is Derived From The Lat. Adiungere, And Originally Meant "meeting." The Ayun Tamiento Consisted Of The Official Members, And Of Regidores Or Regulators, Who ...

Ayuthia
Ayuthia (siamese Krung-kao), For More Than Four Cen Turies The Capital Of Siam, Is On The Northern Main Line Of The State Railways, 42m. From Bangkok. It Was Destroyed By The Burmese In 1555 And Again In 1765, After Which It Ceased To Be The Capital. Historically It Is The ...

Azalea
Azalea, A Number Of Popular Hardy Or Greenhouse Plants, Belonging To The Heath Family (ericaceae), And Not Now Separated Botanically From Rhododendron. The Beautiful Varieties Now In Cultivation Have Been Bred From A Few Originals, Natives Of The Hilly Regions Of China And Japan, Asia Minor, And The United States. ...

Azamgarh
Azamgarh, A City And District Of British India, In The Gorakhpur Division Of The United Provinces. The Town Is Situated On The River Tons. Pop. (1931), 18,046. The Area Of The District Is 2,2i2sq.m., And Its Population In 1931 Was 1,571,577. It Is Bounded On The North By The River ...

Azan
Azan, The Call To Public Worship Proclaimed By The Muezzin (crier) From The Mosque In All Muhammadan Countries (arabic Adlaan "announcement"). In Small Mosques The Muezzin Stands At The Door Or At The Side Of The Building ; In Large Ones He Takes Up His Position In A Minaret. The ...

Azariah
Azariah, The Name Of Several Persons Mentioned In The Old Testament. The Most Important Are : (i) King Of Judah, Son Of Amaziah By His Wife Jecholiah (ii. Kings Xv. 1, 2), Also Called Uzziah (q.v.) ; (2) One Of The Companions In Captivity Of The Prophet Daniel, Called Abednego ...

Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan, The North-western Province Of Persia. It Is Separated On The North From The Soviet Republics Of Azerbaijan And Armenia By The River Aras (araxes) ; On The East It Abuts On The Talish Country And The Caspian Sea; On The West It Is Bounded By Asiatic Turkey, And On ...

Azimuth
Azimuth (from The Arabic), In Astronomy, The Angular Distance From The North Or South Point Of The Horizon To The Foot Of The Vertical Circle Through A Heavenly Body. The Azimuth Of A Horizontal Direction Is Its Deviation From The North Or South. ...

Azo
Azo (c. 1150-1230), Italian Jurist, Was Born At Bologna, Studied Under Joannes Bassianus, And Became Professor Of Civil Law At Bologna. Azo Occupied A Very Important Position Among The Glossators, And His Summa Codicis And Apparatus Ad Codicim, Which Were Collected By His Pupil, Alessandro De Santo Aegidio, And Completed ...

Azoimide Or Hydrazoic Acid
Azoimide Or Hydrazoic Acid, A Compound Of Nitrogen And Hydrogen, First Isolated In 1890 By Th. Cur Tius, Corresponding With Diazoimino-benzene, (p. Griess, 1866), Is Prepared By Adding Ammonia To Diazobenzene Perbro Mide. Curtius Found That Either Benzoylglycollic Acid Or Ethyl Ben Zoate Gave Benzoylhydrazine With Hydrazine Hydrate. Benzoyl Hydrazine ...

Azores Or Western Islands
Azores Or Western Islands, An Archipelago In The Atlantic Ocean, Belonging To Portugal. Area, 92 2sq.m. ; Pop. The Islands Extend From North-west To South East, Between 36° 55' And 55' N., And Between 25° And 31° 16' W. They Are Divided Into Three Widely Severed Groups, Rising From A ...

Azorin
Azorin (1874– ), Spanish Novelist And Critic. Born At Monovar (alicante), Jose Martinez Ruiz, Under The Pseudonym Which Has Completely Eclipsed His Name, Has Written Stories Of Ancient Castile In El Alma Castellana (1600–z800) (1900), Los Pueblos (1904), And Castilla (1912) . After The Three Novels La Voluntad (1902), Antonio ...

Azote
Azote, The Name Given To Nitrogen (q.v.) On Account Of The Inability Of This Gas To Support Life. It Is In Evidence In The Terminology Of The Chemistry Of Certain Organic Compounds Con Taining Nitrogen, E.g., Azo-compounds (q.v.). ...

Azoth
Azoth, The Name Given By The Alchemists To Mercury, And By Paracelsus To His Universal Remedy. ...

Azov
Azov, A Town On The Left Bank Of The River Don, 20m. From Its Mouth, In The North Caucasian Area Of The R.s.f.s.r. (47° 5' N., 39° 22' E.). It Was Formerly A Port, But The Harbour Is Now Silted And Trade Has Been Diverted To Taganrog And Rostov-on Don. ...

Aztec Ruin
Aztec Ruin, An American Ruin Of A Prehistoric Building Of The Pueblo Type, Situated In The Valley Of The San Juan River Near The Town Of Aztec, New Mexico. It Is A Large Structure Covering 4.6ac. And Containing About 5oo Rooms. Of This Building The First Storey Is Standing, And ...

Aztec
Aztec. This Most Famous Of Native American Peoples, Known Also As Mexica, Belonged To The Nahua-speaking Division Of The Great Uto-aztecan Family. Their Traditions Carry Them Back To An Origin From An Island Cave In Aztlan, The Situation Of Which Has Been Sought In Northern Mexico Or Beyond, But Vainly, ...

Azuaga
Azuaga, Western Spain, Province Of Badajoz. Pop. (193o), Azuaga Is The Market Of The Broad Upland Pastures Watered By The Matachel, A Tributary Of The Guadiana, And By The Bembezar, A Tributary Of The Guadalquivir. ...

Azuay
Azuay (sometimes Written Assufly), A Province Of Ecuador, Bounded On The North By The Province Of Canar, On The East By Oriente, On The South By Loja, And On The West By El Oro. It Was Formerly Called Cuenca, And Formed Part Of The Department Of Azuay, Which Also Included ...

Azure
Azure, The Lapis Lazuli, A Blue Stone (arab. Al-lazward, The Initial "1" Having Dropped), Hence The Colour Blue, Described In Heraldry (q.v.) As "azure." The Word Is Also Applied To The Clear Blue Of A Cloudless Sky. The Pigment Ultramarine Blue Was Origi Nally Produced From Powdered Lapis Lazuli. ...

Azurite Or Chessylite
Azurite Or Chessylite, A Basic Copper Carbonate Its Vivid Blue Colour Contrasts Strikingly With The Emerald-green Malachite, Which Usually Accompanies It. It Was Known To Pliny As Caeruleum. The Name Chessylite Is Taken From Chessy, Near Lyon, Where Many Fine Crystals Belonging To The Monoclinic System Have Been Found. Hardness ...

Azymites
Azymites, A Name Given By The Orthodox Eastern To The Western Or Latin Church, Because Of The Latter's Use Of Unleavened Bread In The Eucharist, A Practice Which Arose In The 9th Century. (gr. Privative, 01177, Leaven). The Orthodox Church Stren Uously Maintains Its Point, Arguing That The Example Of ...

Baal
Baal, The Name Of A God, Is Properly A Semitic Word Signi Fying Lord Or Owner. The Word Is Used More Generally As A Noun Of Relation, E.g. A Ba`al Of Hair, "a Hairy Man" (2 Kings I. 8), B. Of Wings, "a Winged Creature," And In The Plural, B. ...

Baalbek
Baalbek, A Town Of The Beka` (coele Syria), Known To The Ancients As Heliopolis, Altitude 3,85oft., On The Watershed Sep Arating The Litani (leontes) And The `asi (orontes), Hard Against One Of The Lower Ridges Of The Antilebanon: The Population Is About 3,000, Consisting Of Christians, Mohammedans And Muta Wilis ...

Baarn
Baarn, A Town In The Province Of Utrecht, Holland, 5m. By Rail East Of Hilversum, At The Junction Of A Branch Line To Utrecht. Pop. (1930) I 2,141. It Is In Picturesque Wooded Surroundings, And Is A Favourite Summer Resort Of People From Amsterdam. The Baarnsche Bosch, Or Wood, Stretches ...

Bab
Bab, An Arabic Word Meaning "gate," Used Largely In Place Names In The Near East, As Bab-el-mandeb (q.v.). The Word Was Brought Into Greater Prominence In The Phrase "the Bab" As A Designation For Mirza Ali Muhammad Ibn Radhik, Founder Of Babiism (q.v.), On Account Of His Taking The Name ...

Babadag
Babadag, A Rumanian Town In The Department Of Tulcea, On The Main Metalled Road From Constanza To Tulcea. In 193o It Had A Population Of 4,607, Which Has Probably Increased Since Then. It Is A Centre For Distribution Of Agricultural Produce Of The Northern Dobrudja. It Lies Upon A Railway ...

Babar Baber
Baber, Babar (1483-153o), A Famous Conqueror Of India And Founder Of The Mogul Dynasty In India. His Name Was Zahir Ud-din Mohammed And He Was Given The Surname Of Baber ("tiger") ; He Was A Descendant Of Timur And Son Of Omar Sheik, King Of Ferghana. Baber Succeeded His Father ...

Babbitts Metal
Babbitt's Metal, An Alloy, Invented By Isaac Babbitt, For The Special Purposes Of Machine Bearings. A Typical Anti-fric Tion Alloy Of This Type Contains 25 Parts Of Tin, 2 Parts Of Antimony And 0.5 Part Of Copper. According To The British Admiralty Speci Fication For An Anti-friction Alloy In Marine ...

Babbler
Babbler, The General Name Applied To Members Of A Large Old World Family Of Birds (timeliidae), Sometimes United With The Thrush Family (turdidae). The Best Known Are The Chinese Robin (liothrix Lutea), The Coach-whip Bird (psophodes) And The Crow-tits (paradoxorn Thine). ...

Babel
Babel, The Native Name Of Babylon (q.v.). The Name Has Become Associated With The Tower Of Babel. According To The Narrative In Genesis, Mankind After The Flood Attempted To Build A Tower Whose Top Would Reach Unto Heaven. They Were, How Ever, Prevented Through Their Speech Being Confounded, And The ...

Babenberg
Babenberg, The Name Of A Franconian Family Which Held The Duchy Of Austria In The Middle Ages. Its Earliest Known Ances Tor Was One Poppo, Count In Grapfeld In The 9th Century. His Son, Henry, Margrave And Duke In Franconia, Fell Fighting Against The Normans In 886 ; Another Son, ...

Babiism
Babiism, The Religion Of The Bab (the Gate), Initiated By His Proclamation At Shiraz, Persia, On May 23, The Traditions Of Islam Had Preserved Throughout The Moham Medan World A Popular Conviction That In The "year Sixty" Would Arise The Qa'im, The Messiah, Destined To Establish The Final And Complete ...

Babirusa
Babirusa, The Wild Swine Of Celebes And Buru (babirusa Al F Urus). The Skin Is Nearly Naked, And Very Rough And Rugged. The Peculiarity Of This Genus Is The Development Of The Canines, Or Tusks, Of The Male. These Teeth Are Ever-growing, Long, Slen Der And Curved, And Without Enamel. ...

Baboon
Baboon, Properly The Designation Of The Long-muzzled, Medium-tailed Egyptian Monkey, Papio Anubis; In A Wider Sense Applied To All The Members Of The Genus Papio Now Confined To Africa And Arabia, Although In Past Times Extending Into India. Baboons Are Large Terrestrial Monkeys With Short Or Medium Sized Tails, And ...

Babrius
Babrius, Author Of A Collection Of Fables Written In Greek. He Is Supposed To Have Been A Roman, Living In The East, Probably In Syria, Where The Fables Seem First To Have Gained Popularity. The Address To "a Son Of King Alexander" Has Caused Much Speculation. The Alexander Referred To ...

Babu
Babu, A Native Indian Clerk. The Word Is Really A Term Of Respect Attached To A Proper Name, Like "mr." And Babu-ji Is Still Used In Many Parts Of India, Meaning "sir"; But Without The Suffix The Word Is Generally Used Contemptuously As Signifying A Semi-literate Native With A Veneer ...

Baby Blue Eyes
Baby Blue Eyes (nemopliila Menziesii), A Small North American Plant Of The Water-leaf Family, Hydropliyllaceae, One Of The Most Popular Wild Flowers Of California, Native To Moist Places In Valleys And Mountains. It Is A Low Usually Diffuse An Nual, With Stems 6 In. To 18 In. Long, Minutely Hairy ...

Baby Bond
Baby Bond, In The United States A Bond Having A Face Or Par Value Of $ioo Or Less. Such Bonds Enable Small Investors To Diversify Their Risks To An Extent Impossible With Bonds Of The Usual $1,000 Denomination. (see Bonds.) ...

Baby Farming
Baby Farming, A Term Meaning Generally The Taking In Of Infants To Nurse For Payment, But Usually With An Implication Of Improper Treatment. Previous To The Year 1871 The Abuse Of The Practice Of Baby Farming In England Had Grown To An Alarm Ing Extent. The Evil Was, No Doubt, ...

Babylon
Babylon, One Of The Most Famous Cities Of Antiquity, Is Situ Ated On The Hilla Branch Of The Euphrates Just North Of The Mod Ern Town Of Hilla. The Rise Of Babylon To Importance Seems To Have Taken Place Comparatively Late In Sumerian History. Up To The Present No Mention ...

Babylonia And Assyria
Babylonia And Assyria. Geographically As Well As Ethnologically And Historically, The Whole District Enclosed Be Tween The Two Great Rivers Of Western Asia, The Tigris And Eu Phrates, Forms But One Country, A Fact Recognized By The Earliest Authorities. It Naturally Falls Into Two Divisions, The Northern Be Ing More ...

Babylonian And Assyrian Religion
Babylonian And Assyrian Religion. Baby Lonia And Assyria Are General Geographical And Racial Terms Which Designate The Eastern Branch And Habitat Of The Semitic Peoples, But Their Religion Was Essentially Sumerian, And Consequently The Religion Of This Earlier Non-semitic People, Who Founded The Mighty Civilization Of Ancient Mesopotamia, Must Be ...

Babylonian Captivity
Babylonian Captivity, The Name Generally Given To The Deportation Of The Jews To Babylon By Nebuchadrezzar. Three Separate Occasions Are Mentioned (jer. Lii. 28-3o) . The First Was In The Time Of Jehoiachin In 597 B.c. After I R Years A Fresh Rising Of The Judaeans Occurred; The City Was ...

Babylonian Cultural Influence
Babylonian Cultural Influence The Evidence Of Babylonian Influence On Other Nations Is More Apparent In Religion And In Literature Than In Archaeological Re Mains. Some Of The Themes Of Pre-dynastic And Early Dynastic Art In Egypt Were Clearly Borrowed From Sumer, And There Is Evidence Of Early Sumerian Civilization In ...

Babylonian Law
Babylonian Law. That The Sumerians, The Earliest Inhabitants Of Babylonia, Had Long Lived Under The Rule Of State Law Is To Be Inferred Not Only From The Great Antiquity Of Their Settled Dwelling In Cities, But From The Survival Of Certain Very Early Documents Concerned With Sales Of Land And ...

Bacau
Bacau, A Town Of Rumania, Capital Of Department Of Same Name. Pop. (1930), About 31,26o, Including Many Jews. Bacau Lies In The Foothills Of The Carpathians, On The River Bistrita, 5 Miles Above Its Junction With The Pruth, And On The Main Czer• Nowitz-ploesti Line. A Branch Railway Runs To ...

Baccarat
Baccarat, A Gambling Card-game (origin Of Name Un Known), Supposed To Have Been Introduced Into France From Italy During The Reign Of Charles Viii. (c. 149o). There Are Two Varieties Of The Game : Baccarat Banque And Baccarat Chemin De Fer. The Most Usual Form At The Present Time Is ...

Bacchanalia
Bacchanalia, The Latin Name For The Wild And Mystic Festivals Of Bacchus (dionysus [q.v.] ). They Were Introduced Into Rome From Lower Italy By Way Of Etruria, And Were Held In Secret, Attended By Women Only, On Three Days In The Year (ovid, Fasti Vi. 503). Subsequently, Admission To The ...

Bacchiadae
Bacchiadae, The Name Of The Chief Oligarchic Family In Ancient Corinth (q.v.). ...

Bacchylides
Bacchylides, Greek Lyric Poet, Was Born At Iulis, In The Island Of Ceos. His Father's Name Was Probably Meidon; His Mother Was A Sister Of Simonides, Himself A Native Of Iulis. Eusebius Says That Bacchylides "flourished" Ok Saq"ev) In 01. 78. 2 (467 B.c.). As The Term I)kµa?"ev Commonly Refers ...

Baccio Dagnolo
Baccio D'agnolo (c. 1460-1543), Florentine Wood Carver, Sculptor And Architect. He Started As A Wood-carver, And Between 1491 And 1502 Did Much Of The Decorative Carving In The Church Of Santa Maria Novella And The Palazzo Vecchio In Florence. At The Beginning Of The 16th Century He Was Engaged With ...

Bach Choir
Bach Choir. There Are Several Bodies Bearing This Name. The London Body So Known Was Founded In 1875, Primarily For The Purpose Of Studying Bach's Mass In B Minor, Of Which Many Performances Have Been Given, The Earliest Under The Direction Of Otto Goldschmidt, The First Conductor Of The Choir. ...

Bacharach
Bacharach, Town, Rhenish Prussia, Germany, On Left Bank Of Rhine, 3om. Above Coblenz. Pop. , 1,853. The Ruins Of Town Walls And St. Werner's (gothic, 13th Century) Church Are Well-known. St. Peter's Is An Interesting Late Roman Esque (early 13th Century) Basilica. The Castle Of Stahleck Above The Town Belonged, ...

Bachelor
Bachelor, A Word Commonly Used To Describe A Man Who Has Not Been Married; In Various Connections It Implies Subordination Or Inferiority Of Rank. It Is Derived From Med. Lat. Baccalarius, With Its Late And Rare Variant Baccalaris-cf. Ital. Baccalare-through O.fr. Baclieler, In The Most General Sense Of The Word, ...

Bachian
Bachian (dutch, Batjan), A Mountainous Island Of The Moluccas. It Lies In The Molucca Sea, Close To The South-west Coast Of Halmaheira, And Is In Ternate Residency, Dutch East Indies. It Is 52m. Long, With A Mean Width Of 23m. ; The Northern Part Is Volcanic ; The Centre Is ...

Bacillariales Or Diatoms
Bacillariales Or Diatoms. The Diatoms Are Micro Scopic Unicellular Or Colonial Plants Belonging To The Algae, And Are Specially Distinguished By The Complex Structure Of Their Cell Walls Which Are Usually Strongly Impregnated With Silica. The Majority Are Exceedingly Minute, And One With A Length Of In. (o• I 2 ...

Bacillus
Bacillus, A Member Of The Group Of Rod-shaped Forms Con Stituting One Variety Of The Non-chlorophyllaceous Vegetable Tnicro-organisms Known As Bacteria. Certain Bacilli Cause Disease In Man And Animals, E.g., Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Plague ; But The Majority Are Non-pathogenic, Though They Occasion Various Putre Factive And Other Changes In Vegetable ...

Back Choir Or Retro Choir
Back-choir Or Retro-choir, A Space Behind The High Altar In The Choir Of A Church, In Which There Is, Or Was, A Small Altar Standing Back To Back With The Other. ...

Backergunge
Backergunge, A District Of British India In The Dacca Division Of Bengal. It Forms Part Of The Joint Delta Of The Ganges And The Brahmaputra, And Its Area Is 3,523sq.m. The General Aspect Of The District Is That Of A Flat Even Country, Dotted With Clusters Of Bamboos And Betel-nut ...

Backgammon
Backgammon, A Game Played With Draughtsmen And A Special Board, Depending On The Throw Of Dice. It Is Said To Have Been Invented About The Loth Century (strutt). A Similar Game (ludus Duodecim Scriptorum, The "twelve-line Game") Was Known To The Romans, And Plato Public, Bk. X.) Alludes To A ...

Backnang
Backnang, An Agricultural Market Town In The Land Of Wurttemberg, 18m. N.e. Of Stuttgart. Pop. (1933) Io,o69. It Has An Interesting 12th Century Church, And Important Tanneries And Leather Factories. ...

Backs River
Back's River, A River In Mackenzie And Keewatin Dis Tricts, Canada, Rising In Sussex Lake, A Small Body Of Water In 20' W. And 64° 25' N., And Flowing With A Very Tortuous Course North-east To An Inlet Of The Arctic Ocean, Passing Through Several Large Lake-expansions—pelly, Garry, Macdougall And ...

Backscratcher
Backscratcher, A Long Slender Rod Of Wood, Whale Bone, Tortoiseshell, Horn Or Cane, With A Carved Hand, Usually Of Ivory, Mounted At The Extremity. Its Name Suggests The Primary Use Of The Implement, But Little Is Known Of Its History, And It Was Unquestionably Also Employed As A Kind Of ...