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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 2 Annu - Baltic

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Byzantine Architecture
Byzantine Architecture The Decline Of Roman Imperialism Was Automatically Accom Panied By That Of Roman Architecture And Its Influence. To Govern The Empire From A More Central Location, Constantine, In A.d. 324, Moved His Capital From Rome To Byzantium, An Ancient Greek City, To Be Known Thenceforth As Constantinople. The ...

Caelius Aurelianus
Aurelianus, Caelius, A Physician Of Sicca In Numidia, Who Probably Flourished In The 5th Century A.d., Although Some Place Him Two Or Even Three Centuries Earlier. We Possess A Translation By Aurelianus Of Two Works Of Soranus Of Ephesus (2nd Century), The Chief Of The "methodist" School Of Medicine, On ...

Canons Of
Canons Of). The Constitutions Fall Into Three Main Divisions. (i) The First Of These Consists Of Books I.–vi., And Throughout Runs Parallel To The Didascalia. (2) Then Follows Book Vii., The First 31 Chapters Of Which Are An Adaptation Of The Didache, While The Rest Contain Various Liturgical Forms Of ...

Cational Psychology
Cational Psychology) . ...

Central Asia
Central Asia The Racial History Of This Vast Central Area Is Obscure. Up To The Present, Despite Much Archaeological Work, Excavators Have Concentrated Rather On The History Of The Last 2,000 Years Than On The Prehistoric Period. In Support Of The Theory That Man Originated In This Region, Dr. Davidson ...

Cesare Balbo
Balbo, Cesare, Count (1789-18s3), Italian Writer And Statesman, Was Born At Turin Of A Noble Piedmontese Family. From 1808 To 1814 He Served In Various Capacities Under The Napoleonic Empire At Florence, Rome, Paris, And In Illyria. On The Fall Of Napoleon He Entered The Service Of His Native Country. ...

Charles Anthon
Anthon, Charles (1797-1867), American Classical Scholar, Was Born In New York City Nov. 19 1797. After Graduat Ing With Honours At Columbia College In 1815, He Began The Study Of Law, And In 1819 Was Admitted To The Bar, But Never Practised. In 1820 He Was Appointed Assistant Professor Of ...

Charles Babbage
Babbage, Charles English Mathema Tician And Mechanician, Was Born At Teignmouth, Devonshire. He Was Educated At A Private School And At St. Peter's College, Cambridge. In The Years 1815-17 He Contributed Three Papers On The "calculus Of Functions" To The Philosophical Transactions, And In 1816 Was Made A Fellow Of ...

Charles Badham
Badham, Charles (1813-1884), English Classical Scholar, Was Born At Ludlow, In Shropshire, England. His Father, Charles Badham, Translator Of Juvenal And An Excellent Classical Scholar, Was Regius Professor Of Physic At Glasgow; His Mother Was A Cousin Of Thomas Campbell, The Poet. When About Seven Years Old, Badham Was Sent ...

Charles James Apperley
Apperley, Charles James English Sportsman And Sporting Writer, Better Known As "nimrod," The Pseudonym Under Which He Published His Works On The Chase And The Turf. The Most Important Of His Works Are : Remarks On The Condition Of Hunters, The Choice Of Horses, Etc. (1831) ; The Chase, The ...

Charlotte Atkyns
Atkyns, Charlotte, Lady English Actress, Nee Charlotte Walpole, Who Married Sir Edward Atkyns In 1779. She Was In France During The Revolution, And Was A Faithful Friend Of The Royal Family. See F. Barbey, A Friend Of Marie Antoinette (1906). ...

Chemistry
Chemistry). ...

Chester Alan Arthur
Arthur, Chester Alan (183o-1886), 21st President Of The United States Was Born In Fairfield, Vt., On Oct. 5, 183o. His Father, William Arthur (1796-1875), When 18 Years Of Age, Emigrated From Co. Antrim, Ireland, And, After Teaching In Various Places In Vermont And Lower Canada, Became A Baptist Minister. William ...

Chology
Chology.) Vocational Psychology Is Concerned With The Selection And Guidance Of Individuals With Respect To The Vocation For Which They Are Best Fitted. Guidance And Selection, To Be Adequately Administered, Require The Analysis Of The Various Occupations To Determine The Qualities That Are Needed For Success In Them, And The ...

Christopher Anstey
Anstey, Christopher English Poet, Was Born At Brinkley, Cambridgeshire, On Oct. 31, 1724. He Was Educated At Eton And King's College, Cambridge, Where He Dis Tinguished Himself For His Latin Verses And Became A Fellow Of His College (1745). Anstey Belonged To The School Of Satirical And So Cial Verse ...

Churchill Babington
Babington, Churchill (1821-1889), English Clas Sical Scholar And Archaeologist, Was Born At Roecliffe, In Leicester Shire, On March 11, 1821, And Studied At St. John's College, Cambridge. He Died At Cockfield, Suffolk, Of Which Place He Was Vicar, On Jan. 12, 1889. From 1865 To 188o He Held The Disney ...

Cinthe
Cinthe (1731-1805), French Orientalist, Brother Of Louis Pierre Anquetil, The Historian, Was Born In Paris. He Was Educated For The Priesthood In Paris And Utrecht, But His Taste For Hebrew, Arabic, Persian And Other Languages Of The East, Developed Into A Passion, And He Discontinued His Theological Course To Devote ...

Civil Aviation
Aviation, Civil. Civil Aviation Embraces All Forms Of Flying Other Than That Carried Out By Fighting Forces And May Be Divided Broadly Into Three Branches. Before Coming To Details It Will Be Useful To Describe Briefly The Scope And Nature Of Each Branch. Though Comparatively Young, Civil Aviation Has Made ...

Civil Flying Schools Light
Civil Flying Schools; Light Aeroplane Clubs; Air Racing Civil Flying Schools.—in Many Countries The Training Of Pilots Both For Military And Commercial Purposes Has Been En Trusted To Civil Schools, Partly For Reasons Of Economy And Partly To Encourage The Civil Development Of Aviation. In England Several Schools Operate On ...

Classical Games
Games, Classical, And Athletic Sports. ) Bibliography. See Krause, Gymnastik And Agonistik Der Hellenen Bibliography. See Krause, Gymnastik And Agonistik Der Hellenen (1841) ; Friedlander, Sittengeschichte Roms, Ii.; Reisch, In Pauly Wissowa, Realencyk. ...

Comparative Physiology Of Fish
Comparative Physiology Of; Fish; Amphibia; Reptiles; Birds; Mammals; Crustacea; Insects; Mollusca; Annelida; Etc. (f. G. P.) ...

Conditions Affecting The Growth
Conditions Affecting The Growth Of Bacteria Food Requirements.—the Supply Of Food Is Obviously The Most Important Condition. It Has Been Seen That Milk Can Support The Life Of Bacteria At Or Near Its Optimum Height, It Is In Fact As Admirable A Food For The Majority Of Bacteria As It ...

Conduction Of Tricity
Tricity, Conduction Of, Liquids; And Electrolysis). It Con Tains Some Ideas Which Later Investigations Have Shown To Require Modification, But Forms The Foundation Upon Which All Subse Quent Theories Of Conductivity Of Solutions Have Been Built. The Revolutionary Nature Of The Theory, Which Required, For Instance, That Free Sodium Ions ...

Confession Of Augsburg
Augsburg, Confession Of, The Most Important Protestant Statement Of Belief Drawn Up At The Reformation, Presented In Latin And German To The Emperor Charles V. At The Diet Of Augsburg, June 25,153o. It Was Compiled By Melancthon, But Based On Articles Previously Drawn Up By Luther, And In Par Ticular ...

Constant D Baron De
Aubigne, Constant D' (baron De Surineau) (c. 1584-1647), French Adventurer, Was The Son Of Theodore Agrippa D'aubigne, And The Father Of Madame De Maintenon. Born A Protestant, He Became In Turn Catholic Or Protestant As It Suited His Interests. He Betrayed The Protestants In 1626, Revealing To The Court, After ...

Constantin Argetoianu
Argetoianu, Constantin ), Ruma Nian Statesman, Was Born At Craiova. He Studied Law And Medicine In Paris And Was In The Diplomatic Service From 1907 To 1913. In 1914 He Was Elected A Senator And Became Minister Of Justice In Gen. Averescu's Cabinet In 1918. Together With Averescu And Cantacuzene ...

Constantine Balmont
Balmont, Constantine (1867— ), Russian Au Thor, Was Born June 3, 1867, At Gumishche, In The Province Of Vladimir, In Central Russia. A Student Of Elizabethan Drama And Of Shelley, He First Became Known As The Translator Of The Latter And The Apostle Of His Ideas. His Extensive Travels In ...

Court Of Arches
Arches, Court Of, The English Ecclesiastical Court Of Appeal Of The Archbishop Of Canterbury, As Metropolitan Of The Province Of Canterbury, From All The Consistory And Commissary Courts In The Province. It Derives Its Name From Its Ancient Place Of Judicature, Which Was In The Church Of Beata Maria De ...

Culate Matriarchy Sororate
Culate ; Matriarchy ; Sororate, Etc. For Anthropological Pur Poses Continents, After A General Introductory Treatment, Are Divided Into Areas, Each Receiving Its Special Ethnologic Attention. In Countries Where A Mixture Of Races Is Found A Special Section For Anthropology Is Included, And The Reader Requiring Such In Formation In ...

Daniel Francois Esprit Auber
Auber, Daniel Francois Esprit French Musical Composer, The Son Of A Paris Printseller, Was Born At Caen In Normandy. He Learnt To Play At An Early Age On Several Instruments, His First Teacher Being The Tirolean Composer, I. A. Ladurner. Eventually He Studied Under Cherubini, And In 1813 Made His ...

Decimus Magnus Ausonius
Ausonius, Decimus Magnus (c. Roman Poet And Rhetorician, Was Born At Burdigala (bordeaux). He Set Up (in 334) A School Of Rhetoric In His Native Place, Which Was Largely Attended, His Most Famous Pupil Being Paulinus, After Wards Bishop Of Nola. After 3o Years Of This Work, He Was Sum ...

Deed Of Arrangement
Arrangement, Deed Of, An Arrangement Under Written Instrument By A Debtor For The Benefit Of The General Body Of His Creditors For The Discharge Of His Liability. It Is Not Binding On Creditors Who Do Not Assent. Under The Deeds Of Arrangement Act, 1914, Such Deeds Must Be Registered At ...

Desert Of Atacama
Atacama, Desert Of, An Arid, Barren And Saline Region Of Western South America, Covering The Greater Part Of The Chilean Provinces Of Atacama And Antofagasta, The Argen Tine Territory Of Los Andes, And The South-western Corner Of The Bolivian Department Of Potosi. The Higher Elevations Are Known As The Puna ...

Diseases Of Arteries
Arteries, Diseases Of. Apart From Their Implica Tion In Neighbouring Foci Of Disease, E.g., Abscess Or New Growth, Arteries Suffer From Certain Well-defined Morbid Processes Whereby The Character Of Their Walls Is Affected And Changes May Be In Duced In The Tissues They Normally Supply With Blood And In The ...

Domenico Alberto Azuni
Azuni, Domenico Alberto Italian Jurist, Was Born At Sassari, In Sardinia, In 1749, And Died At Cagliari, Where He Was Consular Judge And Director Of The Uni Versity Library. He Studied Law At Sassari And Turin, And In 1782 Was Made Judge Of The Consulate At Nice. In 1786-88 He ...

Dominique Arago
Arago, Dominique Francois Jean 1853), French Physicist, Was Born Feb. 26 1786, At Estagel, Perpignan, Eastern Pyrenees. He Was The Eldest Of Four Brothers. Jean (1788-1836) Emigrated To America And Became A General In The Mexican Army. Jacques Etienne Victor (1799-1855) Took Part In L. C. De S. De Freycinet's ...

Don Jose Nicholas De
Azara, Don Jose Nicholas De (1731-1804), Spanish Diplomat, Was Born In 1731 At Barbunales, Aragon, And Was Appointed In 1765 Spanish Agent And Procurator-general, And In 1785 Ambassador At Rome. During The 13 Years Of His Resi Dence There He Distinguished Himself As A Collector Of Italian Antiquities And As ...

Dry Or Fire Assaying
Dry Or Fire Assaying Gold And Silver Ores.—gold And Silver Are Bought By The Ounce (troy), And, For Convenience In The Evaluation Of Ores, The Contents Of Precious Metals Are Not Reported In Percentages, But In Oz., Or Decimals Of An Oz. (troy), Per Ton Of Ore. The Ton (avoirdupois) ...

Duchess Of Atholl Katherine
Katherine Marjory, Duchess Of Atholl, Wife Of The 8th Duke, Entered The House Of Commons For Kinross And West Perth In 1923, And In 1924 Became Parliamentary Secretary To The Board Of Education. She Was A Daughter Of Sir J. H. Ramsay Of Banff, The Historian, And Herself Edited And ...

Dynasties Of Gutium And
Dynasties Of Gutium And Ur The Dynasty Of Agade Was Suppressed By The Hill Men Of Gutium, But No Archaeological Evidence Of The Foreign Domination Can Be Adduced. Gudea, The Issakku, "tenant Farmer," Or Gov Ernor Of Lagash, And His Immediate Successor Lived Under This Foreign Domination, And An Independent ...

E Fernandez Arbos
Arbos, E. Fernandez Spanish Violinist And Composer, Was Born In Madrid And Trained At The Conserva Toire There, And Later At Brussels And At Berlin Under Joachim. He Became A Professor At Hamburg And Then At Madrid, Becoming Known Meanwhile As One Of The Finest Violinists Of The Day; And ...

Ea Belit
Belit, Ea, Ishtar, Ereshkigal, Gula, Marduk, Nebo, Nergal, Ninurta, Nusku, Oannes, Shamash, Sin, Tammuz.) Bibliography.-h. Zimmern, Zur Herstellung Der Babylonischen Bibliography.-h. Zimmern, Zur Herstellung Der Babylonischen Gotterliste (leipzig, 191o) ; A. Deimel, Pantheon Babylonicum (rome, 1914) ; Morris Jastrow, Religion Babyloniens And Assyriens (giessen, 1905—i2) ; Aspects Of Religious Belief ...

Earls And Dukes Of
Argyll, Earls And Dukes Of. The Rise Of This Family Of Scottish Peers, Originally The Campbells Of Lochow And First Ennobled As Barons Campbell, Is ,referred To In The Article Argyllshire. ...

Earls And Dukes Of_2
Atholl, Earls And Dukes Of The Stewart Line Of The Scottish Earls Of Atholl, Which Ended With The 5th Stewart Earl In 1595, The Earldom Reverting To The Crown, Had Originated With Sir John Stewart Of Balveny (d. 1512), Who Was Created Earl Of Atholl About 1457 (new Charter 1481). ...

Earls Of Arran
Arran, Earls Of. The Extinct Scottish Title Of The Earls Of Arran (not To Be Confused With The Modern Irish Earls Of Arran —from The Arran Or Aran Islands, Galway—a Title Created In 1762) Was Borne By Some Famous Characters In Scottish History. With The Exception Of The First Earl, ...

Earls Of Arundel
Arundel, Earls Of. According To Cokayne (com Plete Peerage, I. P. 138, Note A) There Is An Old Sussex Tradition To The Effect That —since William Rose And Harold Fell There Have Been Earls Of Arundel. This, He Adds, "is The Case, If For `of' We Read `at'." ...

Echidna
Echidna. The Great Ant-eater Or Ant-bear (myrmecophaga Jubata) Is The Largest Representative Of The Tropical American Family Myr Mecophagidae (see Also Edentata). It Measures 4 Ft. In Length, Exclusive Of The Long Bushy Tail, Which Is Usually Carried Bent Over The Back, And Reaches A Height Of 2 Ft. At ...

Economic Conditions In Austria
Economic Conditions In Austria, 1918-38 The Old Austro-hungarian Empire Consisted Of The Great Fertile Plains Of The Danube, The Theiss, And The Elbe, The Ring Of Moun Tains Which Surrounded Them, And To The North-east The Uplands And Plateau Which Lie Beyond Those Mountains. Of This Somewhat Amorphous, But Geologically ...

Editions F G
Editions-f. G. Kenyon, Ed. Princeps (1897) ; F. Blass, 3rd Ed. (1904), (suers 1912) ; H. Jurenka (1898) ; N. Festa, Text, Translation And Notes (1898). For A Very Full Account Of The Life And Works Of Bacchylides, And A Discussion Of The Ms. See The Edition By Sir Richard ...

Edmond Audran
Audran, Edmond (1842-1901), French Musical Corn Poser, Was Born At Lyons. He Made His First Appearance As A Dramatic Composer At Marseille With L'ours Et Le Pacha (1862), A Musical Version Of One Of Scribe's Vaudevilles. Later He Made Various Attempts To Win Fame As A Writer Of Sacred Music ...

Edward Arber
Arber, Edward (1836-1912), English Man Of Letters, Was ,born In London On Dec. 4, 1836, And Was Killed In A Taxi Cab Accident In London On Nov. 23, 1912. Arber Is Associated With The "english Reprints" (1868-8o), By Which An Accurate Text Of The Works Of Many English Authors, Formerly ...

Edward Baines
Baines, Edward (1774-1848), English Newspaper Pro Prietor And Politician, Was Born Feb. 5 1774, At Walton-le-dale, Near Preston, Lancashire, And Died Aug. 3 1848. In 18or The Assistance Of Party Friends Enabled Him To Buy The Leeds Mer Cury. Provincial Newspapers Did Not At That Time Possess Much Influence; It ...

Edward Gibson Ashbourne
Ashbourne, Edward Gibson, 1st Baron 1913), Irish Lawyer And Politician, Was Born In Dublin Sept. 4 1837, And Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin. He Was Called To The Irish Bar In 186o, And In 1872 Became A Q.c. In 1875 He Was Elected For Dublin University As A Conservative, ...

Edward Hodges Baily
Baily, Edward Hodges (1788-1867), British Sculp Tor, The Son Of A Carver Of Ship's Figureheads, Was Born At Bristol On May Io, 1788. At School And In The Commercial Office Which He Entered On Leaving School He Made Wax Models And Busts Of His Fellows, And In 1807 Began To ...

Egyptian Architecture
Egyptian Architecture Although Structures Discovered In Chaldaea, At Tello And Nippur, Seem To Date Back To The Fifth Millennium B.c., The Best Examples Of Architecture Prior To Greece Exist In The Monu Mental Works Of The Egyptians. The Culture Of The Period Was Confined To A Small Ruling Class, Made ...

Eight Thousand Million Assignats
Eight Thousand Million Assignats In 1790 The Interest On The Assignats Holdings Was Reduced To 3%, And As The Treasury Had Again Become Exhausted A Further Issue Was Decided Upon ; It Was Also Decreed That The Assignats Were To Be Accepted As Legal Tender, All Public Departments Being Instructed ...

Electrical Atomization
Atomization, Electrical, A Process For The Pro Duction Of Stable Colloidal Solutions Of Metals. An Electric Arc Is Passed Between Electrodes Of Pure Metal In Distilled Water Con Tained In A Vessel Made Of Practically Insoluble Material. Faraday Probably Was The First To Employ The Electric Arc To Produce Finely ...

Elias Ashmole
Ashmole, Elias (1617-1692), English Antiquarian, And Founder Of The Ashmolean Museum At Oxford, Was Born At Lich Field, The Son Of A Saddler. In 1638 He Became A Solicitor, In 1644 Was Appointed Commissioner Of Excise, And Subsequently Obtained A Commission As Captain Of Horse. In 1649 He Married As ...

Elisabeth Bettina Von Arnim
Arnim, Elisabeth (bettina) Von German Authoress, Sister Of Klemens Brentano, And Daughter Of The Maximiliane Brentano, Who Had Been One Of The Intimates Of Goethe's Youth, Was Born At Frankfort-on-main On April 4, 17 85. From Goethe's Mother Bettina Had Heard Stories Of The Poet's Childhood, And She Was An ...

Emanuele Filiberto Aosta
Aosta, Emanuele Filiberto, Duke Of (1869 1931), Italian General, Was Born Jan. 13 1869, The Eldest Son Of Prince Amedeo Of Savoy, Duke Of Aosta, And Thus A Cousin Of Victor Emmanuel Iii. He Adopted A Military Career, But This Was Interrupted By A Serious Illness, And When The World ...

Emanuele Giocchino Cesare Rincon
Astorga, Emanuele Giocchino Cesare Rincon, Baron D' (1680-c. Italian Musical Composer, Was Born At Naples, And Had A Romantic Career Which Has Lost Nothing At The Hands Of His Biographers ; He Is Said, On Doubtful Evidence, To Have Been The Son Of A Baron Of Sicily Who Was Executed ...

Embryology
Embryology The Earliest Appearance Of The Blood Vessels Is Dealt With Under Vascular System. Here Will Be Briefly Described The Fate Of The Main Vessel Which Carries The Blood Away From The Truncus Arteriosus Of The Developing Heart (q.v.). This Ventral Aorta, If Traced Forward, Soon Divides Into Two Lateral ...

Emmanuel Henri Louis Alexandre
Antraigues, Emmanuel Henri Louis Alexandre De Launay, Comte D' French Publicist And Political Adventurer, Was A Nephew Of Francois Emmanuel De Saint-priest (1735-1821), One Of The Last Min Isters Of Louis Xvi. During The Emigration He Was The Secret Agent Of The Comte De Provence (louis Xviii.) At Different Courts ...

Epiphanes Antiochus Iv
Antiochus Iv., Epiphanes (176-164 B.c.), Defeated Egypt's Attempt To Reconquer Palestine And Invaded And Occupied Egypt Until Later Driven Out By The Romans. He Is Also Known For His Attempt To Suppress Judaism By Force, His Persecutions Resulting In The Maccabaean Rebellion. Antiochus Vii. Sidetes (138-129 B.c.) Was The Last ...

Ernst Moritz Arndt
Arndt, Ernst Moritz (1769-186o), German Poet And Patriot, Was Born On Dec. 26, 1769, At Schoritz In The Island Of Riigen, Which At That Time Belonged To Sweden. He Was Edu Cated At Stralsund, Greifswald, And Jena, And Qualified For The Lutheran Ministry. At The Age Of 28 He Renounced ...

Ethiopia
Ethiopia : The Axumite Kingdom.) Hira, Ghassan And Kinda.—the Kingdom Of Hira (hira) Was Established In The Fertile Boundary Land Between The Euphrates And The Arabian Desert. The Chief Town Was Hira,, A Few Miles South Of The Site Of The Later Town Of Kufa. The Inhabitants Of This Land ...

Etienne Arnal
Arnal, Etienne (1794-1872), French Comedian. Was Born At Meulan, Seine-et-oise, On Feb. 1, 1794. After Serving In The Army, And Working In A Button Factory, He Took To The Stage. His First Appearance (181 5) Was In Tragedy, And For Some Time He Was Unsuccessful; It Was Not Until 1827 ...

Etienne Jules Adolphe Desmier
Archiac, Etienne Jules Adolphe Desmier De Saint Simon, Vicomte D' (1802-68), French Geolo Gist, Was Born At Reims Sept. 24 1802, And Died Dec. 24 1868. He Wrote A Histoire Des Progres De La Geologic 1834-59 (paris, 1847-60). He Was Appointed (1861) Professor Of Palaeontology In The Museum Of Natural ...

Eugene Aram
Aram, Eugene (17o4-1759), English Scholar, And Mur Derer, Was Born Of Humble Parents At Ramsgill, Yorkshire. In When He Was Schoolmaster At Knaresborough, A Man Named Daniel Clark, His Intimate Friend, After Obtaining A Considerable Quantity Of Goods From Some Of The Tradesmen, Suddenly Disap Peared. Suspicions Of Being Concerned ...

European Air Transport
European Air Transport This Country Civil Aviation Began To Be Developed Immediately After The War, And Since 1919 Large Sums Have Been Devoted Each Year To Air Transport Development. In 1927, Four Air Transport Companies Operating Over 8,304 Route Miles, Had Connections Between London, Paris, Berlin, Brussels, Bucharest And Other ...

Exploration Of Arctic Regions
Exploration Of Arctic Regions Ancient Ideas.—the Ancients Had No Actual Knowledge Of The Polar Regions. By Astronomical Speculations The Greeks Had Come To The Conclusion That North Of The Arctic Circle There Must Be Midnight Sun At Midsummer And No Sun At Midwinter. The Gen Eral View Was That The ...

Farther Asia
Farther Asia Anthropology.—in South-eastern Asia There Is A Heterogene Ous Mixture Of Racial Elements, And A Population Which Contains Very Varied Elements At All Stages Of Culture And Much Confused By Race Mixture. The Wooly-haired Peoples Are Represented By The Negrito And Papuasian Races, The • Wavy-haired By The Pre ...

Feast Of Assumption
Assumption, Feast Of, The Feast Of The Assumption Of The Blessed Virgin Mary (lat. Assumptio, Dormitio Depositio, Pausatio B.v.m. (gr. /coiµrlats Or Avixrlos Trls Oeor6kov), Cele Brated By The Christian Church On Aug. 15, Commemorating Her Death And Miraculous Ascent Into Heaven. The Belief In The Latter Has Its Origin ...

Feast Of The Ascension
Ascension, Feast Of The, Known Also As Holy Thursday In The Anglican Church, The 4oth Day After Easter, Com Memorating Christ's Ascension To Heaven; One Of The Oecumenical Festivals Of The Christian Church, Ranking With Christmas, Easter And Pentecost. St. Augustine (ep. S4 Ad Januar.) Mentions It As Having Been ...

Feast Of The Ass
Ass, Feast Of The, A Festival Formerly Held On Jan. 14 In Northern France, In Commemoration Of The Biblical Flight Into Egypt. A Girl With A Baby At Her Breast And Seated On An Ass Splendidly Caparisoned Was Led Through The Town To The Church Where Mass Was Said. The ...

Filippo Baldinucci
Baldinucci, Filippo Italian Writer On The History Of The Arts, Was Born At Florence. His Chief Work Is Entitled Notizie De'pro F Essori Del Disegno Da Cimabue . . . (dal 1260 Sino At 167o) (1681-1728). The Capital Defect Of This Work Is The Attempt To Derive All Italian Art ...

First Millennium Bc
First Millennium B.c. The Empire Of Boghaz Keui Had Been Destroyed By The Sea Peoples, But Its Artistic Traditions Were Carried By The Mushki People, Perhaps Akin To The Phrygians, Occupying The Territory Of Which Boghaz Keui Was The Centre, Then By The Phrygians, Whose Kingdom Corresponded To The Country ...

First Millennium Bc_2
First Millennium B.c. The Interior Of Syria: Zendjirli, Carchemish, Tell-halaf. —german Excavations At Zendjirli (the Old Kingdom Of Samal) To The North-west Of Aleppo Near The Amanus, And The British Work At Carchemish On The Euphrates, Which Of Ter The Fall Of Boghaz-keui Was The Capital Of The New Hittite ...

Florence Merriam Bailey
Bailey, Florence Merriam ), Ameri Can Ornithologist, Sister Of C. Hart Merriam (q.v.), Was Born At Locust Grove, N. Y., On Aug. 8, 1863. She Graduated At Smith College In 1886 And In 1899 Married Vernon Bailey (q.v.) . She Became A Devoted And Able Student Of Birds, Especially Those ...

Forest Of Arden
Arden, Forest Of, A Well Marked Physical Area Of North Warwickshire, England, The "woodland" As Opposed To The "fel Den" Or "fielden" ; I.e., Open Country, In The South, The River Avon Separating The Two. Originally Part Of A Forest Tract Of Far Wider Extent Than That Within The Confines ...

Fractions
Fractions The Subject Of Fractions In Arithmetic Involves A Consideration Of The Primitive Notion Of Fraction, The Growth Of The Concept, The Types Of Fractions, The Symbolism, The Names Of The Parts And The Operations. These Are Discussed In The Article On Fractions. So Far As Elementary Arithmetic Is Concerned, ...

Franc Ois Appert
Appert, Franc Ois (d. 1840), French Inventor, Dis Covered The Method Of Preserving Food By Enclosing It In Hermeti Cally Sealed Tins, And Wrote A Book Entitled Art De Conserver Les Substances Animales Et Vegetales. ...

Franc Ois Hedelin Aubignac
Aubignac, Franc Ois Hedelin, Abbe D' (i 604 1676), French Author, Was Born In Paris. His Father Practised At The Paris Bar, And His Mother Was A Daughter Of The Great Surgeon Ambroise Pare. Francois Hedelin Took Holy Orders, Was Appointed Tutor To One Of Richelieu's Nephews, And Received Through ...

Francis Asbury
Asbury, Francis The Second Bishop Of The Methodist Episcopal Church And The First Consecrated In The United States, Was Born In Handsworth, Staffordshire, England, On Aug. 20, I 745. His Parents Gave Him A Good Elementary School Ing Of About Seven Years While He Was Between The Ages Of Six ...

Francis Atterbury
Atterbury, Francis (1662—i 73 2 ), English Man Of Letters, Politician And Bishop, Was Born At Milton, Bucks, The Son Of A Clergyman. Educated At Westminster School And Christ Church, Oxford, He Became A Tutor Of His College. He Took Holy Orders In 1687, And Was Appointed One Of The ...

Francis Bacon
Bacon, Francis, Baron Verulam, Viscount St. Al Bans (1561-1626), English Philosopher, Statesman And Essayist, Lord Chancellor Of England, Was Born At York House In The Strand, London, On Jan. 22, 1561. He Was The Youngest Son Of Sir Nicholas Bacon (q.v.), The Lord Keeper. His Mother Was A Sister In-law ...

Francis Baily
Baily, Francis (1774-1844), English Astronomer, Was Born At Newbury, Berkshire. He Made A Fortune On The Stock Exchange, And Acquired A Great Reputation For His Actuarial Cal Culations. He Retired From Business In 1825. He Had Already, In 1820, Taken A Leading Part In The Foundation Of The Royal Astro ...

Francis Edward Bache
Bache, Francis Edward English Musical Composer, Was Born In Birmingham On Sept. 14, The Pupil Of Alfred Mellon For Violin And Sterndale Bennett For Composition, He Afterwards Went To Leipzig In 1853 And Studied With Hauptmann And Plaidy. Considering The Early Age At Which He Died, His Compositions Are Fairly ...

Francis Maitland Balfour
Balfour, Francis Maitland (1851-1882), Brit Ish Biologist, Younger Brother Of A. J. Balfour (first Earl), Was Born In Edinburgh. Educated At Harrow And At Trinity College, Cambridge, Where' He Took The Second Place In The Natural Science Tripos Of Dec. 1873, He Was Selected To Occupy One Of The Two ...

Francis William Aston
Aston, Francis William ), British Scien Tist, Was Born At Harborne, Birmingham, Sept. R 1877, And Edu Cated At Malvern College And The Universities Of Birmingham And Cambridge. He Was Elected To A Fellowship At Trinity College, Cambridge, And Was Made Assistant Lecturer In Physics At Bir Mingham University In ...

Francois Noel Babeuf
Babeuf, Francois Noel Known As Gracchus Babeuf, French Political Agitator, Was Born At St. Quentin On Nov. 23 1760. Until The Outbreak Of The Revolution He Was A Domestic Servant, And From 1785 Occupied The Invidious Office Of Commissaire A Terrier, His Function Being To Assist The Nobles And Priests ...

Franklin Bache
Bache, Franklin (1 I 92-1864), American Chemist, Was Born In Philadelphia, Pa., On Oct. 25, 1792, And Graduated From The University Of Pennsylvania In 181o. He Served In The Army During The War Of 1812, When He Was Appointed Surgeon's Mate And Later Surgeon. He Was Given His Degree As ...

Franz Xaver Von Baader
Baader, Franz Xaver Von German Theologian, Born At Munich, On March 27, 1765, Studied Medicine At Ingolstadt And Vienna, And Later Became A Mining Engineer. While In England (1792-96) He Was Introduced To The Mysticism Of Boehme And The Empiricism Of Hume, Hartley And Godwin. On His Return To Hamburg ...

Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander
Argelander, Friedrich Wilhelm August German Astronomer, Was Born At Memel On March 22, 1799, And Studied At Konigsberg. His Treatise On The Path Of The Great Comet Of 181i Appeared In 1822; He Was, In 1823, Made Director Of The Observatory At Abo ; And He Exchanged It For A ...

Gabriele D Annunzio
Annunzio, Gabriele D', Prince Of Monte Nevoso (1864-1938), Italian Novelist, Poet And Soldier, Of Dalmatian Extraction, Was Born At Pescara (abruzzi) In 1864. While Still At School He Published Primo Vere (1879) A Volume Of Verse Which Was Highly Praised By Giuseppe Chiarini. The Young Poet Then Went To Rome, ...

Gaius Sollius Apollinaris Sidonius
Apollinaris Sidonius, Gaius Sollius (c. 487 Or 488), Christian Writer And Bishop, Was Born In Lyons About A.d. 43o. He Married (about 452) Papiania, The Daughter Of Avitus, Who Was Consul And Afterwards Emperor. He Enjoyed The Favour Of Majorianus And Anthemius, And In 472, More For His Political Than ...

Georg Anton Friedrich Ast
Ast, Georg Anton Friedrich German Classical Scholar, Was Born At Gotha And Died At Munich, Where He Was Professor Of Classical Literature For 15 Years. His Works Are Platons Leben And Schri F Ten (1816), An Edition Of Plato's Works (1819-32), With Latin Translation And Commen Tary, And Lexicon Platonicum ...

George Anson Anson
Anson, George Anson, Baron (1697-1762), British Admiral, Was Born April 23 1697. His Mother Was The Sister-in Law Of Lord Chancellor Macclesfield. George Anson Entered The Navy In Feb. 1712, And Received Rapid Promotion. He Com Manded The Squadron Which Was Sent To Attack The Spanish Pos Sessions In South ...

George Atwood
Atwood, George (1746-1807), English Mathemati Cian, Was Educated At Westminster School And Trinity College, Cambridge. He Received From William Pitt An Office In The Cus Toms Which Was Practically A Sinecure And Left Him Leisure For His Studies. He Was The Inventor Of Atwood's Machine. Atwood's Most Important Works Are: ...

George Eden Auckland
Auckland, George Eden, Earl Of A Governor-general Of India, Was Second Son Of The First Baron Auckland. He Was Educated At Oxford, Succeeding To The Peerage In 1814. He Was A Consistent Supporter Of The `'whigs And Was Selected By Lord Grey As President Of The Board Of Trade And ...