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Encyclopedia Britannica Volume 3 Baltimore - Braila

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Paul Barras
Barras, Paul Frangois Nicolas, Comte De Member Of The French Directory Of 1795-99, Was Descended From A Noble Family Of Provence, And Before The ' Revolution Took Part In The French Campaigns In India. In 1789 He Adopted Extreme Democratic Principles And Was Counted A Jacobin In The Convention, Which ...

Paul Bartsch
Bartsch, Paul (1871– ), American Biologist, Was Born In Tuntschendorf, Germany, On Aug. 14, 1871. Following His Graduation At The State University Of Iowa In 1896 He Joined The Staff Of The U.s. National Museum, Washington, In Which He Served As Aid In The Division Of Mollusks From 1896 To ...

Paul Bert
Bert, Paul (1833-1886), French Physiologist And Poli Tician, Was Born At Auxerre (yonne). He Was Appointed Professor Of Physiology Successively At Bordeaux (1866) And The Sorbonne (1869). In 1874 He Was Elected To The Assembly, Where He Sat On The Extreme Left, And In 1876 To The Chamber Of Deputies. ...

Paul Charles Joseph Bourget
Bourget, Paul Charles Joseph French Novelist And Critic, Was Born At Amiens On Sept. 2, 1852 The Son Of A Teacher Of Mathematics. He Received His Early Educa Tion At Clermont-ferrand, And Afterwards Studied At The Lycee Louis-le-grand And At The Ecole Des Hautes Etudes. In 1872– 1873 He Produced ...

Paul Jacques Aims Baudry
Baudry, Paul Jacques Aims (1828-1886), French Painter, Was Born At La Roche-sur-yonne (vendee) On Nov. 7 1828, And Died In Paris On Jan. 17 1886. He Studied Under Drol Ling, And Carried Off The Prix De Rome In 185o By His Picture Of "zenobia Found On The Banks Of The ...

Paul Wayland Bartlett
Bartlett, Paul Wayland (186 2 5) , American Sculptor, Was Born In New Haven (conn.), The Son Of Truman H. Bartlett, An Art Critic And Sculptor. When 15, He Began To Study At Paris Under Fremiet, Modelling From Animals In The Jardin Des Plantes. He Won A Medal At The ...

Per Brahe
Brahe, Per, Count (1602-168o), Swedish Soldier And Statesman, Was Born On The Island Of Rydboholm, Near Stockholm, On Feb. 18 1602. He Was The Grandson Of Per Brahe (152o-9o), Nephew Of Gustavus I., Created Count Of Visingsborg By Eric Xiv., Known As The Continuator Of Peder Svart's Chronicle Of Gustavus ...

Peter Barlow
Barlow, Peter (1776-1862), English Writer On Pure And Applied Mathematics, Was Born At Norwich. In 1806 He Was Appointed Mathematical Master In The Woolwich Academy, And Filled That Post For 41 Years. In 1823 He Was Made A Fellow Of The Royal Society, And Two Years Later Received The Copley ...

Peter Bayne
Bayne, Peter (183o-1896), Scottish Journalist And Author, Was Born At Fodderty, Ross-shire, And Educated At Mari Schal College, Aberdeen, And Afterwards At Edinburgh University. His Works Include The Christian Life, Social And Individual (1855) ; Essays, Bibliographical And Critical (1859) ; Life Of Hugh Miller (18 71) ; Martin Luther, ...

Peter Leonard Leopold Benoit
Benoit, Peter Leonard Leopold ), Flemish Composer, Was Born On Aug. 17, 1834, At Harlebeke, Flan Ders. In 1851 He Entered The Brussels Conservatoire, Where He Studied Under Fetis. During This Period He Composed Music To Many Melodramas, And To An Opera Le Village Dans Les Montagnes For The Park ...

Petrus Borel
Borel, Petrus, Full Name Pierre Joseph Borel D'hauterive (18o9-1859), French Writer, Was Born At Lyons. His Father Had Been Ruined By Taking Part In The Resistance Offered By The Lyons Royalists Against The Convention, And Petrus Borel Was Educated In Paris To Be An Architect. He Soon Abandoned His Profession ...

Petrus Johannes Blok
Blok, Petrus Johannes (1855-1932), Dutch His Torian, Was Born Jan. To, 1855 At Helder, Holland. After Holding A Professorship In Groningen University, He Became, In 1894, Pro Fessor Of Dutch History In The University Of Leyden, A Position Which He Retained Until 1925. His Most Important Work Is Geschi Edenis ...

Philippe Berthelot
Berthelot, Philippe , French Diplomat, Son Of The Great Chemist, Marcellin Berthelot, Was Born On Oct. 9, 1866, At Sevres. Entering The Diplomatic Service In 1889, He Went, In 1904, To The Foreign Office, Where, In 1913, He Became Assistant-director In The Political And Commercial Department. In This Position He ...

Philippe De Remi Beaumanoir
Beaumanoir, Philippe De Remi, Sire De (d. 1296), French Jurist, Was Born In The Early Part Of The 13th Cen Tury. The Few Facts Known Regarding Him Are Gathered From Legal Documents: It Appears That In 1273 He Held The Post Of Bailli At Senlis, And In 128o A Similar ...

Phineas Taylor Barnum
Barnum, Phineas Taylor (1810-1891), American Showman, Was Born In Bethel, Conn., On July 5, 181 O, His Father Being An Innkeeper And Storekeeper. Barnum First Started As A Storekeeper, And Was Also Concerned In The Lottery Mania Then Prevailing In The United States. After Failing In Business, He Started In ...

Pierre Alexandre Berthier
Berthier, Pierre Alexandre, Prince Of Neu Chatel (1753-1815), Marshal Of France And Chief Of The Staff Under Napoleon I., Was Born At Versailles On Feb. 20, 1753. During The Revolution, As Chief Of Staff Of The Versailles National Guard, He Protected The Aunts Of Louis Xvi. From Popular Violence, And ...

Pierre Bayle
Bayle, Pierre French Philosopher And Man Of Letters, Was Born On Nov. 18, 1647, At Le Carla-le-comte, Near Pamiers (ariege), The Son Of A Calvinist Minister. He Entered The Jesuit College At Toulouse. He Adopted The Roman Catholic Faith (1669), But Reverted To Calvinism, And In Order To Avoid Persecu ...

Pierre Belon
Belon, Pierre French Naturalist, Was Born Near Le Mans (sarthe). He Studied Medicine At Paris, Where He Took The Degree Of Doctor, And Then Became A Pupil Of The Botanist Valerius Cordus (1515-44) At Wittenberg, With Whom He Travelled In Germany. Cardinal De Tournon Furnished Him With Means For A ...

Pierre Bosquet
Bosquet, Pierre Frangois Joseph (1810 1860, French Marshal, Was Born At Mont De Marsan, Landes, On Nov. 8 181o, And Died At Toulouse, Feb. 5 1861. He Entered The Artillery In 1833 And Served In Algeria With Great Distinction From 1834 To 1853, When He Returned To France A General ...

Pierre Bouguer
Bouguer, Pierre (1698-1758), French Mathematician, Succeeded His Father, John Bouguer, As Regius Professor Of Hydrog Raphy At Croisic In Lower Brittany. In 1729 He Published Essai D'optique Sur La Gradation De La Lumiere, The Object Of Which Was To Define The Quantity Of Light Lost By Passing Through A Given ...

Pierre De Berulle
Berulle, Pierre De (1575-1629), French Cardinal And Statesman, Was Born At Serilly, Near Troyes, On Feb. 4, 7 5 . He Was Educated By The Jesuits And At The University Of Paris. He Assisted Cardinal Duperron In His Controversy With The Prot Estant Philippe De Mornay, Founded The Congregation Of ...

Pierre De Ruel Beurnonville
Beurnonville, Pierre De Ruel, Marquis De (1752-1821), French General. Minister Of War In Feb. 1793, He Denounced His Old Commander, C. F. Dumouriez, To The Con Vention, And Was One Of The Four Deputies Sent To Watch Him. Given Over By Him To The Austrians On April 3, 1793, Beurnon ...

Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant (1818-1893), American Soldier, Was Born Near New Orleans, La., On May 28, 1818. At The U.s. Military Academy He Graduated Second In His Class In 1838, And Was Appointed Lieutenant Of Engineers. In The Mexican War He Distinguished Himself In Siege Operations At Vera Cruz, And ...

Pierre Jean Beckx
Beckx, Pierre Jean (1795-1887), General Of The Society Of Jesus, Was Born At Sichem, Belgium, On Feb. 8, And Entered The Novitiate Of The Order At Hildesheim In 1819. He Was Head Of The Order From 1853 To 1883. His Tenure Of Office Was Marked By An Increased Zeal For ...

Pierre Jean De Beranger
Beranger, Pierre Jean De French Song-writer, Was Born In Paris On Aug. 19, 1780. He Received Very Little Formal Instruction In His Childhood In Paris, Where As A Schoolboy He Witnessed The Fall Of The Bastille. Later He Lived At Peronne With An Aunt, Who Taught Him To Be A ...

Pierre Le Pesant Boisguilbert
Boisguilbert, Pierre Le Pesant, Sieur De (1676-1714), French Economist, Was Born At Rouen Of An Ancient Noble Family Of Normandy, Allied To That Of Corneille. As Judge At Montivilliers Near Havre, And Then As President Of The Bailliage Of Rouen, He Made A Close Study Of Local Economic Con Ditions. ...

Pierre Marcelin Boule
Boule, Pierre Marcelin (1861— ), French Scientist, Was Born Jan. I 1861, At Montsalvy. Educated At Tou Louse, He Became Assistant Professor Of Geology At Clermont Ferrand, And Devoted Himself To The Study Of Palaeontology. He Became A Member Of The Commissions On Historical Monuments And The Geological Map Of ...

Pierre Terrail Bayard
Bayard, Pierre Terrail, Seigneur De (1473 1524), French Soldier, The Descendant Of A Noble Family, Nearly Every Head Of Which For Two Centuries Past Had Fallen In Battle, Was Born At The Château Bayard, Dauphine (near Pontcharra, Isere), About 1473. In 1494 He Accompanied Charles Viii. Into Italy, And Was ...

Pierre Victor Besenval De
Besenval De Bronstatt, Pierre Victor, Baron De (1722-1791), French Soldier, Was Born At Soleure. He Became Commander Of The Swiss Guards In Succession To His Father. When The Revolution Began Besenval Was Given Command Of The Troops Which The King Had Concentrated On Paris In July I789—a Movement Which Led ...

Pietro Bembo
Bembo, Pietro (1470-1547), Italian Cardinal And Scholar, Was Born At Venice. While Still A Boy He Accompanied His Father To Florence, And There Learnt To Love The Tuscan Dialect Which He Afterwards Cultivated. He Accompanied Giulio De' Medici To Rome, Where He Was Appointed Secretary To Leo X. (1513) . ...

Pio Baroja
Baroja, Pio ), Spanish Novelist, Was Born At San Sebastian. Impersonal, Pessimistic And Chillingly Intellectual, Baroja Deals By Preference With The Rebels And Pariahs Of The World. He Attempts No Idealization : His Works Are Even, At Times, Reminiscent Of The Picaresque Novel. His Style Is Direct And Un Polished: ...

Pompeo Girolamo Batoni
Batoni, Pompeo Girolamo (1708-1787), Italian Painter, Was Born At Lucca. In His Day, He Was Regarded In Italy As A Great Painter. Many Of His Pic Tures Are In The Public Buildings In Rome. He Had A Great Vogue As A Portrait Painter, ' And Is Said To Have Numbered ...

Primitive Basketry
Primitive Basketry The Word Basket Does Not Occur In Teutonic Or Romance Lan Guages; Its First Appearance In The English Tongue Is In The I3th Century, And The Modern Celtic Words (welsh, Basged; Irish, Basceid, Etc.) Are Probably Adapted From The English. Basketry Is A Convenient, Though Ill-defined Term, Including ...

Prince Derandreyevich
Der Andreyevich, Prince , Grand Chancellor Of Russia, Was Born At Gluchova On March 14, And Educated At Home And In The Clerical Academy At Kiev. He Accompanied Count Rumyantsev, Then The Governor General Of Little Russia, To The Turkish War In 1768, And Was Present At The En Gagements ...

Protection Of Birds
Birds, Protection Of. The Protection Of Birds Has Been Rendered Necessary By Their Excessive Destruction In Various Ways, Including: (a) Reckless And Ignorant Destruction Of These Creatures As Well As Of Their Nests; (b) Commercial Destruction For The Market; (c) Trade In Ornamental Plumage; (d) Inordinate Collecting Of Skins And ...

Protozoa Tacea
Tacea, Protozoa, Mollusca, Insects And Reptiles ; In Mammals, Besides A Comprehensive Account Of The Class As A Whole In The Article Mammalia, Each Order Has An Article Devoted To It, Among Which Primates, Cetacea, Carnivora And Proboscidea May Be Mentioned As Examples, And The Principal Animals Are Fully Covered ...

Quantity Of Blood In
Quantity Of Blood In The Body The Body Of An Adult Man Contains About 5 Litres Of Blood, Usually Rather Less. The Quantity In Man May Be Measured In One Of Two Ways. Each Depends Upon Putting A Known Quantity Of Some Substance Into The Body, And, After It Has ...

Red Winged Blackbird
Blackbird, Red-winged (agelaius Phoeniceus), A Common North American Bird, Breeding From The Gulf Of Mexico Northward. The Feathers Of The Male Are Black, Tipped With Rust Colour In Winter, The Wing-coverts Being Scarlet And Buff. The Female Is Brownish Black Above, And White Streaked With Black Below, With The Wing-coverts ...

Reinhold Begas
Begas, Reinhold (1831-1911), German Sculptor, Younger Son Of Karl Begas, The Painter, Was Born At Berlin On July 15 1831, And Died There On Aug. 3 1911. He Received His Early Education In The Ateliers Of C. D. Rauch And L. Wichmann. During A Period Of Study In Italy, From ...

Remy Belleau
Belleau, Remy (c. French Poet, And Mem Ber Of The Pleiade (see Davrat), Was Born At Nogent-le-rotrou. He Studied With Ronsard And Others Under Jean Daurat At The College De Coqueret. He Was Attached To Rene De Lorraine, Mar Quis D'elboeuf, In The Expedition Against Naples In Where He Did ...

Rene Bazin
Bazin, Rene (1853-193 2 ), French Novelist And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Angers On Dec. 26, 1853. He Studied Law In Paris And Became Professor Of Law In The Catholic University At Angers. His Novel, Une Tache D'encre (1888), Which Received A Prize From The Academy, Was Translated ...

Rene Boylesve
Boylesve, Rene (1867-1926), Pen Name Of Rene Tardiveau, French Novelist, Who Was Born At La Haye-descartes (indre-et-loire). He Began His Education At The Jesuit College Of Poitiers, And Passed From There To Tours. He Completed His Studies At The F Aculte De Lettres Of Paris, The F Aculte De Droit ...

Rene Le Bossu
Bossu, Rene Le (1631-168o), French Critic, Was Born In Paris. He Studied At Nanterre, And In 1649 Became One Of The Regular Canons Of Sainte-genevieve. He Wrote Parallele Des Principes De La Physique D'aristote Et De Celle De Rene Descartes (1674), And A Traite Du Poeme Epique, Highly Praised By ...

Reproductive Habits
Reproductive Habits Any Treatment Of The Problems Connected With Territory In Bird Life Must Begin By Pointing Out That Relevant Data Are Still Meagre, And-that Theories Put F Orward Remain To Be Adequately Tested By Criticism And By Work In The Field. The Far-reaching Nature Of These Problems Has Only ...

Reptiles
Reptiles, With Shorter Articles Such As Snake, Crocodile, Nosauria, Lizard, Gecko, Etc. ; A General Article Fishes, With Sidiaries Such As Fisheries, Herring, Cod, Salmon, Eel, Shark, Etc. ; A General Article Crustacea, With Supplementary Articles On The Important Subdivisions, Copepoda, Malacostraca, Etc., And On Such Important Forms As Crab, ...

Rest Of The Words
Rest Of The Words Of Baruch This Book Was Undoubtedly Written Originally By A Jew But Was Subsequently Revised By A Christian, As Has Been Shown By Kohler In The Jewish Quarterly Review (1893) , Pp. 407-409. It Passed Under A Double Name In The Abyssinian Church, Where It Was ...

Richard Bancroft
Bancroft, Richard Archbishop Of Canterbury, Was Burn At Farnworth, In Lancashire. He Was Edu Cated At Cambridge. He Received Important Preferments And Came Into Prominence Through A Passionate Sermon Against The Puritans Preached At Paul's Cross On Feb. 9, 1589. He Was Chaplain Succes Sively To Lord Chancellor Hatton And ...

Richard Barnfield
Barnfield, Richard (1574-1627), English Poet, Was Born At Norbury, Staffs, And Baptized On June In 1589 He Went To Brasenose College, Oxford, Where He Graduated In 1592, But He Seems To Have Left The University Abruptly Without Pro Ceeding To The M.a. His First Work, The Affectionate Shepherd, Was Published ...

Richard Baxter
Baxter, Richard (1615-1691), English Puritan Di Vine, Called By Dean Stanley "the Chief Of English Protestant Schoolmen," Was Born At Rowton, In Shropshire, At The House Of His Maternal Grandfather, In November (probably The 12th) 1615. Educated At The Free School Of Wroxeter And Under Richard Wickstead, Chaplain At Ludlow ...

Richard Bentley
Bentley, Richard English Scholar And Critic, Was Born At Oulton Near Wakefield, Yorkshire, And Educated At St. John's College, Cambridge. In 1683 He Became Tutor To The Son Of Dean Stillingfleet, A Position Which Gave Him Access To The Best Private Library In England, And Brought Him Into Contact With ...

Richard Bentley_2
Bentley, Richard British Publisher, Was Born In London. His Father Owned The General Evening Post In Conjunction With John Nichols. With His Brother Samuel 0785-1868), An Antiquarian Of Some Repute, He Set Up A Printing Establishment, But In 1829 He Began Business As A Publisher In Partnership With Henry Colburn ...

Richard Doddridge Blackmore
Blackmore, Richard Doddridge 1900), English Novelist, Was Born At Longworth, Berks, Of Which Village His Father Was Curate-in-charge. He Was Educated At Blundell's School, Tiverton, And Exeter College, Oxford, And Was Called To The Bar At The Middle Temple In 1852. His First Publica Tion Was A Volume Of Poems ...

Richard Harris Barham
Barham, Richard Harris English Humourist, Better Known By His Noon De Plume Of Thomas In Goldsby, Was Born At Canterbury On Dec. 6, 1788, And Died In London On June 17, 1845. At Seven Years Of Age He Lost His Father, Who Left Him A Small Estate, Part Of Which ...

Richard Parkes Bonington
Bonington, Richard Parkes Eng Lish Painter, Was Born At Arnold, Near Nottingham, Oct. 25, I8o1. His Father, One Time Governor Of Nottingham Gaol, Was Also A Drawing-master. In 1817 The Family Moved To Calais Where The Father Started Business In Connection With The Nottingham Lace Trade. Here Young Bonington Became ...

Richard Rogers Bowker
Bowker, Richard Rogers American Editor And Bibliographer, Was Born In Salem, Mass., On Sept. 4, 1848. He Graduated At The College Of The City Of New York In 1868 And Then Became Literary Editor Of The New York Evening Mail. He Was Associated In An Executive Capacity With Various Business ...

Robert Barany
Barany, Robert (18 7 6-1936), Austrian Physician, Was Born In Vienna, April 22, 1876, And Became A Lecturer On Diseases Of The Ear At The University There In 1909. In When He Was A Military Doctor At Przmysl, He Was Taken Prisoner By The Russians, But After Some Time He ...

Robert Barclay
Barclay, Robert (1648-16go), An Apologist Of The Society Of Friends, Was Born At Gordonstown, Near Elgin, Scot Land, On Dec. 23 1648, The Son Of Col. David Barclay (1610-86), Who Had Served Under Gustavus Adolphus. Robert Was Educated At The Scots College In Paris, And After His Return To Scotland ...

Robert Barnes
Barnes, Robert (1495?-154o), English Reformer And Martyr, Born About 1495, Was Educated At Cambridge, Where He Was A Member, And Afterwards Prior Of The Convent Of Austin Friars, And Graduated D.d. In The Year 1526, He Was Brought Be Fore The Vice-chancellor For Preaching A Heterodox Sermon, And Was Subsequently ...

Robert Bell
Bell, Robert (1800-67), Irish Man Of Letters, Was Born At Cork Jan. 16 1800, And Died In London On April 12 1867. He Was Educated At Trinity College, Dublin, Where He Was One Of The Founders Of The Dublin Historical Society. His Most Important Work Is His Annotated Edition Of ...

Robert Bensley
Bensley, Robert (d. C. 18og), English Actor Praised By Charles Lamb In The Essays Of Elia, Played Important Parts At The Drury Lane, Covent Garden, And Haymarket Theatres From 1765 To 1796. His Most Successful Role Was Malvolio. ...

Robert Blair
Blair, Robert Scottish Poet, Was Educated At Edinburgh University And In Holland, And In 1731 Was Appointed To The Living Of Athelstanef Ord In East Lothian. He Died At Athel Staneford Feb. 4 1746. His Only Considerable Work, The Grave , Is A Poem Written In Blank Verse, And Is ...

Robert Blake
Blake, Robert English Parliamentarian And Admiral, Was Born At Bridgwater, Somersetshire, The Eldest Son Of A Well-to-do Merchant, And Was Educated At Bridgwater Grammar School And At Oxford, Where He Was Entered At St. Alban's Hall, But Afterwards Removed To Wadham College. He Remained At The University Till 1625. Nothing ...

Robert Bloet
Bloet, Robert (d. 1123), English Bishop, Was Chancel Lor To William I. And Rufus. From The Latter He Received The See Of Lincoln (5093) In Succession To Remigius. He Administered His See With Skill And Prudence, Built Largely, And Kept A Magnifi Cent Household, Which Served As A Training-school Even ...

Robert Bloomfield
Bloomfield, Robert (1766-1823), English Poet, Was Born Of Humble Parents, At The Village Of Honington, Suffolk. He Was Apprenticed At The Age Of I 1 To A Farmer, But He Was Too Small And Frail For Field Labour, And Four Years Later He Came To London To Work For A ...

Robert Boyd Boyd
Boyd, Robert Boyd, Lord (d. C. 1470), Scottish Statesman, Was A Son Of Sir Thomas Boyd (d. 1439) And Belonged To An Old And Distinguished Family, One Member Of Which, Sir Robert Boyd, Had Fought With Wallace And Robert Bruce. Boyd, Who Was Created A Peer About 1454, Was One ...

Robert Boyle
Boyle, Robert English Natural Philosopher, Seventh Son And 14th Child Of Richard Boyle, The Great Earl Of Cork, Was Born At Lismore Castle, Ireland, Jan. 25 1627. While Still A Child He Learned To Speak Latin And French, And He Was Only Eight Years Old When He Was Sent To ...

Robert De Beaumont
Robert De Beaumont (i104-1168), Justiciar Of England, Re Ceived His Father's English Fiefs In '1' 8, And Became Earl Of Lei Cester. He And His Brother, Waleran, Were The Chief Advisers Of Stephen, And Helped This King To Seize The Bishops Of Salisbury And Lincoln In 1139; Later, However, Robert ...

Robert Dudley Baxter
Baxter, Robert Dudley English Economist And Statistician, Was Born At Doncaster. He Joined His Father's Firm Of Baxter & Co., Solicitors, With Which He Was Connected Till His Death. His Principal Economic Writings Were The Budget And The Income Tax (186o), Railway Extension And Its Results (1866), The National Income ...

Robert Frederick Blum
Blum, Robert Frederick American Artist, Was Born In Cincinnati (0.), On July 9, 1857. He Was Employed For A Time In A Lithographic Shop, And Studied At The Mcmicken Art School Of Design In Cincinnati, And At The Pennsyl Vania Academy Of Fine Arts In Philadelphia, But He Was Practically ...

Robert Of Belesme
Belesme, Robert Of (c. Ii 00), Earl Of Shrewsbury. From His Mother Mabel Talvas He Inherited The Fief Of Belesme, And From His Father, The Conqueror's Companion, That Of Shrews Bury. Both Were March-fiefs, The One Guarding Normandy From Maine And The Other England From The Welsh ; Consequently Their ...

Roger De Beauvoir
Beauvoir, Roger De, The Nom De Plume Of Eugene Auguste Roger De Bully (1809-1866), French Writer, Was Born In Paris. The Son And Nephew Of Public Officials Who Did Not Ap Prove His Literary Inclinations, He Wrote Over The Signature Of Roger De Beauvoir. He Astonished All Paris With His ...

Roger Joseph I Boscovich
Boscovich, Roger Joseph (i 71 One Of The Foremost Serbo-croat Scientific Writers, And Among The Earliest Of Foreign Savants To Adopt Newton's Gravitation Theory, Was Born At Ragusa In Dalmatia On May 18, 17ii, According To The Usual Account, But Ten Years Earlier According To Lalande (eloge, 1792). In His ...

Rosa Marie Rosalie Bonheur
Bonheur, Rosa (marie Rosalie) (1822-1899), French Animal Painter, Was Born At Bordeaux On March 22 1822, The Daughter Of An Raymond Bonheur (d. 1849). She Was The Eldest Of Four Children, All Of Whom Were Artists, And Studied In Paris. Rosa Bonheur's Paintings Of Animals Were Remarkable For The Firm ...

Rubber Belting
Rubber Belting This Type, As It Is Known In The United States, Is Composed Of Cotton Duck Impregnated With A Strong, Tenacious, Slow-ageing Rub Ber Compound. The Present Methods Of Manufacture Produce A Belt, Homogeneous, Strong, Flexible And Durable. The Rubber Fric Tion Compound Is Not Merely Spread On The ...

Rudolf Baumbach
Baumbach, Rudolf (1840--19o5), German Poet, Was Born At Kranichfeld On The Ilm, In Thuringia, On Sept. 28, 184o, And Acted As A Private Tutor In Various Austrian Towns. In Trieste He Caught The Popular Taste With An Alpine Legend, Zlatorog (1877), And Songs Of A Journeyman Apprentice, Lieder Eines Fahrenden ...

Rudolf Von Bennigsen
Bennigsen, Rudolf Von German Politician, Was Born At Luneburg On July Io 1824, The Son Of An Officer In The Hanoverian Army. In 1855 He Was Elected A Member Of The Second Chamber And At Once Became The Recognized Leader Of The Liberal Opposition To The Reactionary Government. He Must ...

Ruggero Bonghi
Bonghi, Ruggero (1828-1895), Italian Scholar, Writer And Politician, Was Born At Naples. He Was Professor Of Greek At Pavia (185g), Of Latin Literature At Florence (1865), And Of Ancient History At Rome From 1876 Onwards. Elected Deputy In 1860 He Became Celebrated By The Biting Wit Of His Speeches, And ...

Runs And Suspensions Distrust
Distrust, Runs And Suspensions A Great Part (probably The Greater Part) Of A Bank's Liabilities Will Be Payable On Demand. No Bank Keeps Enough Cash To Pay All Its Demand Obligations. It Is Unlikely That Cash And Liquid Investments Together Would Suffice. Supposing All Its Customers Simultaneously Exercised Their Rights ...

Saint Barbara
Barbara, Saint, A Virgin Martyr And Saint Of The Ro Man Catholic And Orthodox Eastern Churches, Whose Festival Day Is December 4. She Was The Daughter Of A Heathen Named Dio Sorus Who Kept Her Carefully Guarded In A Tower ; During His Ab Sence On A Journey She Caused ...

Saint Benedict Of Nursia
Benedict Of Nursia, Saint (c. 543), The Patriarch Of Western Monks. Our Only Authority For The Facts Of St. Benedict's Life Is Bk. Ii Of St. Gregory's Dialogues. St. Gregory Declares That He Obtained His Information From Four Of St. Bene Dict's Disciples Whom He Names; And There Can Be ...

Saint Bernard
Bernard, Saint (iogo-1153), Abbot Of Clairvaux, Was Born At Fontaines, Near Dijon, In France. His Father, A Knight Named Tecelin, Perished On Crusade; And His Mother Aleth, Of The Noble House Of Mon-bar, Died While He Was Yet A Boy. The Lad's Disposition Directed Him To The Church. His Desire ...

Saint Blasius Or Blaise
Blasius Or Blaise, Saint, Bishop Of Sebaste Or Sivas In Asia Minor, Martyred Under Diocletian On Feb. 3, 316. The Roman Catholic Church Keeps His Festival On Feb. 3, The Orthodox Feb. Ii. He Is Said To Have Been Torn With Woolcombers' Irons Be Fore He Was Beheaded, And This ...

Saint Boniface
Boniface, Saint (68o-754), The Apostle Of Germany, Whose Real Name Was Wynfrith, Was Born Of A Good Family At Crediton Or Kirton In Devonshire. While Still Young He Became A Monk, And Studied First At Exeter, Then At Nutcell Near Win Chester, Under The Abbot Winberht. He Soon Distinguished Himself ...

Saleius Bassus
Bassus, Saleius, Roman Epic Poet, In The Reign Of Ves Pasian. He Is Praised By Quintilian (instit. X. 1. 90) And By One Of The Speakers In Tacitus' Dialogus De Oratoribus (5, 9) . Ves Pasian Relieved His Poverty By A Present Of 5oo,00o Sesterces. Nothing From His Works Has ...

Samuel Augustus Barnett
Barnett, Samuel Augustus (1844-1913), Eng Lish Clergyman And Social Reformer, Born At Bristol On Feb. 8, 1844, The Son Of Francis Augustus Barnett, An Iron Manufacturer, Visited, After Leaving Wadham College In 1866, The United States. Next Year He Became Curate Of St. Mary's, Bryanston Square, And In 1872 Vicar ...

Samuel Bamford
Bamford, Samuel 88-187 2) , English Labour Politi Cian, Was Born At Miston, Near Middleton, Lancashire, On Feb. 28, 1788. He Was A Working Weaver And Reformer Who Earned Great Respect In Northern Circles; But He Was Timid In Policy And Jealous Of Rivals. Through Attending And Speaking At The ...

Samuel Barrington
Barrington, Samuel (1729-1800), British Admiral, Son Of The 1st Viscount Barrington. He Entered The Navy, And In 1747 Had Worked His Way To A Post-captaincy. On The Outbreak Of The Seven Years' War He Served With Hawke In The Basque Roads In Command Of The "achilles." In The "achilles" Captured ...

Samuel Birch
Birch, Samuel 0813-1885), English Egyptologist And Antiquary. At First Employed In The Record Office, He Was Ap Pointed To The British Museum Staff In 1836, As He Knew Chinese. He Then Began To Study Egyptian And Assyrian, And On The Reorganization Of The Museum He Was In Charge Of The ...

Samuel Bochart
Bochart, Samuel (1599-1667), A Famous French Scholar, Who Was Born At Rouen On May 3o, 1599. He Was For Many Years Pastor Of A Protestant Church At Caen. In 1646 He Published His Phaleg And Chanaan (caen, 1646 And 1651), The Two Parts Of His Geographia Sacra. His Hierozoicon, Which ...

Samuel Bowles
Bowles, Samuel American Journalist, Was Born In Springfield (mass.), Feb. 9, 1826, And Died There Jan. So, 1878. With The Exception Of A Brief Period In Boston, He Devoted His Life To The Springfield Republican, Established As A Weekly By His Father In 1824 And Published As A Daily After ...

Samuel Laman Blanchard
Blanchard, Samuel Laman British Author And Journalist, Was Born At Great Yarmouth May 15 1804. In 1828 He Published Lyric Offerings, Dedicated To Charles Lamb. He Had A Very Varied Journalistic Experience, And From 1841 Till His Death He Was Connected With The Examiner. In 1846 Bulwer Lytton Collected A ...

Sandro Botticelli
Botticelli, Sandro, Properly Alessandro Di Mari Ano Dei Filipepi (1444-1510), Florentine Painter, Was Born At Florence In 1444, In A House In The Via Nuova, Borg' Ognissanti. This Was The Home Of His Father, Mariano Di Vanni Dei Filipepi, A Struggling Tanner. Sandro, The Youngest Child But One Of His ...

Sarah Rosine Bernard Bernhardt
Bernhardt, Sarah (rosine Bernard) (1845-1923), French Actress, Was Born In Paris On Oct. 22 1845, Of Mixed French And Dutch Parentage, And Of Jewish Descent. She Was, However, Baptized At The Age Of 12 And Brought Up In A Convent. , At 13 She Entered The Conservatoire, Where She Gained ...

Saverio Bettinelli
Bettinelli, Saverio (1718-1808), Italian Jesuit And Man Of Letters, Was Born At Mantua On July 18, 1718. He Entered The Society Of Jesus In 1736, Taught Rhetoric At Venice, And Was Then Head Of The College Of Nobles At Parma. He Travelled Ex Tensively In Europe, And Finally Settled In ...

Savings Banks
Savings Banks These Were First Suggested By Daniel Defoe In 1697, But Nearly A Century Was To Elapse Before They Were Actually Established. The First Was Founded In Brunswick In I 765, And Others Rapidly Fol Lowed Upon The Continent. In 1799, Following A Suggestion Of Jeremy Bentham, The Rev. ...

Sayyid Husain Bilgrami
Bilgrami, Sayyid Husain Indian Statesman, A Member Of A Well-known Mohammedan Family, Was Educated At The Presidency College, Calcutta, And Became Professor Of Arabic At Lucknow. In 1884 He Was Attached To The Service Of The Nizam Of Berar, Where He Was Director Of Education For 20 Years. He Helped ...

Scottish Banks
Scottish Banks In 1695 The Scottish Parliament Passed An Act Establishing The Bank Of Scotland. This, Though Contemporaneous With The Bank Of England, Was Given Wider Privileges, For It Received The Ex Clusive Right To Carry On The Business Of Banking For 21 Years, And Not Only Had To Give ...

Sea And Strait Bering
Bering Island, Sea And Strait. These Are Named After The Explorer Vitus Bering. The Island (also Called Avatcha), Which Was The Scene Of His Death, Lies In The South Western Part Of The Sea, Off The Coast Of Kamchatka, Being One Of The Commander Or Komandor Group, Belonging To Siberia. ...

Sex Cytology
Cytology, Sex, Reproduction And Variation. Each Of The Large Groups Of Animals Has An Article Devoted To It, E.g., Crus ...

Short Dated Investments
Short-dated Investments Advances To Traders.—short-dated Investments Are Possible Because It Suits The Convenience Of Certain Classes Of People To Borrow Temporarily. That Is Especially True Of Traders Who Pro Duce Or Buy Commodities With A View To Sale. Usually A Trader Either Buys Or Sells Goods In Large Quantities At ...