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A Treatise on Roads and Pavements (1903)

Forms Of Construction
Forms Of Construction. There Are Two Forms Of Con Struction Of Country Gravel Roads, Which Differ As To The Manner Of Preparing The Subgrade To Receive The Gravel. In One Form The Gravel Is Simply Deposited On The Surface In A Strip Along The Middle Of The Former Earth Road; ...

Foundation Brick
Foundation - Brick Each Brick Should Have An Adequate Sup Port From Below, As Otherwise The Loaded Wheels Will Force It Down Ward And Make The Surface Uneven, A Condition Which Conduces To The Rapid Destruction Of The Pavement By The Impact Of The Wheels In Passing Over The Depressions. ...

Foundation Wood Block
Foundation - Wood Block The Blocks Are Sometimes Set Meetly Upon The Native Soil, After It Has Been Properly Shaped And Rolled; And Sometimes Upon A Layer Of Sand. The Usual And Best Foundation Is Constructed By Spreading A Layer Of Coarse Sand, About 3 Inches Thick, Upon The Prepared ...

General Characteristics
General Characteristics. As Usually Found Asphalt Is Of A Dark Brown Or Glistening Black Color. It Varies In Hardness From A Viscous Liquid To About 34 On The Dana Scale. The Streak Is Almost Uniformly Brown, Sometimes Brownish-black; And The Fracture Is Dull And Conchoidal. When Rubbed Or Freshly Broken, ...

Granite
Granite. This Is A Massive, Unstratified, Granular Rock Composed Essentially Of Quartz And Feldspar, But Almost Always Containing Other Components, Such As Mica, Hornblende, And Tour Maline In Varying Proportions. The Quartz And The Feldspar Are Called Essential Ingredients, Since Their Presence Is Necessary To Form A Granite; While The ...

Gravel Walks
Gravel Walks. Gravel Is Employed For Walks Chiefly In Parks Because Its Natural Color Usually Harmonizes Well With That Of Grass And The Foliage Of Trees And Shrubs, And Also Because A Gravel Walk Is Not As Hard And Stiff In Appearance As One Of Asphalt Or Cement. When There ...

Ground Plan
Ground Plan. The Following Principles Must Be Borne In Mind In Designing The Ground Plan Of A Bicycle Race-track. 1. The Length And The Form Of The Track Will Depend Upon The Size And The Shape Of The Area Available. 2. Large Tracks Are Expensive To Construct, And Do Not ...

Guaranteeing Pavements
Guaranteeing Pavements. Itis A Common Custom To Require The Contractor To Guarantee The Pavement For A Term Of Years, Which Guarantee Is Supported Either By An Indemnifying Bond Or By A Portion Of The Cost Of The Pavement Retained By The Municipality Until The Expiration Of The Specified Period. In ...

Gutters
Gutters. The Material. Ordinarily The Surface Of The Pavement Adjacent To The Curb Serves As A Channel To Convey The Drainage To The Nearest Inlet, I. E., The Gutter Is Formed Of The Same Material As The Pavement. With An Asphalt Or Macadam Pave Ment, It Is Customary To Lay ...

Hardening The Surface Sand
Hardening The Surface - Sand Roads. The Great Disadvantage Of Pure Sand As A Road Material Is The Freedom With Which The Grains Move One On The Other; And Therefore To Improve A Sand Road Grass Should Be Encouraged To Occupy All The Space Possible, Since Its Roots Will Decrease ...

Horse Race Tracks
Horse-race Tracks. An Engineer Is Occasionally Required To Lay Out And Con Struct A Horse-race Track, And Therefore A Consideration Of This Subject Is Not Out Of Place Here. Half-mile Oval Requires Less Ground Than The Mile Oval, Gives The Spectators A Better View Of The Race, And Is Favorable ...

Improving Old Roads
Improving Old Roads. Country Roads May Be Improved In Any Of Several Ways: 1. By Changing The Location, To Secure Better Alignment Or Lower Gradients. The Method Of Doing This Has Been Discussed In Art. 2, Chapter I. 2. By Cutting Down The Hills And Filling Up The Hollows, To ...

Laying The Blocks Wood
Laying The Blocks - Wood Block The Blocks Are Placed On End Close Together Upon The Plank Foundation, And Are Packed In Such A Way That The Spaces Between The Adjoining Blocks Have Only Three Sides Rather Than Four Or More. The Closest Packing Gives Trian Gular Spaces. Projecting Knots ...

Laying The Brick
Laying The Brick. Delivery. Some Contractors Pile The Brick At The Side Of The Street Before Commencing The Grading, While Others Haul Them To The Street And Take Them Directly To The Men Who Lay Them. If The Brick Can Be Had At The Kiln And Are Shipped Exactly When ...

Location Of Mines
Location Of Mines Asphalt Is Found Mixed With More Or Less Earthy And Vegetable Matter, Or Impregnating Limestone Or Sandstone. The Localities Where It Is Found Are Shown In Table 39. "one Or More Mines Are Worked In Each Of These Countries, Except, Perhaps, Columbia, Indian Territory. Montana, New Mexico, ...

Maintenance Brick Pavements
Maintenance Brick Pavements. The Maintenance Of A Brick Pavement Consists In Watch Ing It, Especially During The First Year Or Two, To See That No De Pressions Occur Due To Insufficient Foundation Or To The Use Of Defective Brick. Any Low Place Due Either To The Settling Of The Foundation ...

Maintenance By Contract
Maintenance By Contract. In View Of The Ordinarily Inefficient System Of Caring For Roads, It Has Frequently Been Pro Posed To Maintain Them By Contract. As A Rule, Work Done Under The Supervision Of A Contractor Who Has Pecuniary Interest In The Result Is More Economical Than That Performed Under ...

Maintenance By Contract Pavement
Maintenance By Contract - Pavement Economics. . As Stated Above It Is Common To Require A So-called Guarantee Which Is Virtually A Con Tract For Maintenance For The Specified Period. Maintenance By Contract Is Justifiable If The Engineering Department Of The City Does Not Possess, Or Can Not Reasonably Be ...

Manufacture Of The Brick
Manufacture Of The Brick. Soft, Homogeneous Clay May Be Run Through Rollers, To Crush The Lumps, And From The Crusher It May Go Directly To The Brick Machine; But It Is Usually Desirable To Run It First Through A Pug Mill, Where It Is Mixed And Worked With Water Into ...

Materials Of Construction
Materials Of Construction. The Surface Of , A Bicycle-race Track May Be Loam, Clay, Cinders, Wood, Or Cement. Most Of The Early Tracks Were Constructed Of Either Loam Or Clay. Such Surfaces Are Cheap And Easy To Construct; But On The Other Hand, (1) The Cost Of Maintenance Is Great, ...

Measuring The Gravel
Measuring The Gravel. When Gravel Roads Are Built By Public Officials, The Gravel Is Usually Measured In Place In The Pit Or In The Wagon. The Former Is The Better Practice, Since It Is More Definite. When The Road Is Built By Contract, The Gravel Is Measured (1) In The ...

Method Of Repairing
Method Of Repairing. The Repairs Necessitated In The Maintenance Of An Asphalt Pavement May Be Classified As Follows: (1) Those Due To A Settlement Of The Subgrade; (2) Those Due To A Disintegration Of The Pavement In Spots; (3) Those Due To The Formation Of Waves; (4) Those Due To ...

Method Of Testing Stone
Method Of Testing Stone. There Are Two Methods Of Determining The Qualities Of A Stone For Road-building Purposes: (1) By Using The Stone In The Road And Keeping An Account Of The Cost Of Repairs Over A Series Of Years, Or (2) By Laboratory Experi Ments. The First Is Uncertain ...

Methods Of Maintenance Broken Stone
Methods Of Maintenance. Broken-stone Road. There Are Two General Methods Of Maintenance, Which May Be Called (1) Continuous Maintenance And (2) Periodic Repairs. By The First System The Waste On Account Of Traffic Is Supplied Gradually As It Is Worn Off By Adding A Patch Here And There, And So ...

Miscellaneous Foundations Macadam
Miscellaneous Foundations Macadam. Where Crushed Stone Is Especially Plentiful Or Cement Is Unusually Expensive, A Thick Course Of Macadam May Be More Economical Than A Thin Layer Of Concrete Concrete Dis Tributes The Concentrated Load Of The Wheel Over A Considerable Area Of The Subgrade By Virtue Of Both Its ...

Miscellaneous Roads Wheelways
Miscellaneous Roads - Wheelways. When Wheeled Vehicles Are Drawn By Horses, The Wheels Should Move On The Smoothest And Hardest Surface Possible, While The Horses Require A Surface Rough Enough To Give Them A Secure Foothold And Soft Enough To Be Easy To Their Feet. The Two Opposite Requirements Are ...

Mixing The Concrete
Mixing The Concrete. The Value Of The Concrete De Pends Greatly Upon The Thoroughness Of The Mixing. Every Grain Of Sand And Every Fragment Of Aggregate Should Have Cement Adher Ing To Every Point Of Its Surface. Thorough Mixing Should Cause The Cement Not Only To Adhere To All The ...

N B M A
N. B. M. A. Standard, As The Preparation Of A Charge For Rattling Requires Much More Care And Discretion; And The Supplies Con Sumed Are More Expensive, As There Are Many More Bolts Under Continual Wear And Many More Small Accessories To Provide, Such As Wedges, Gaskets, Washers, Clips, Etc. ...

N B M A
N. B. M. A. Standard. In February, 1901, The National Brick Manufacturers' Association Modified Its Previous Standard (§ 742) By Adopting Talbot's Form Of Abrasive Material, And Pub Lished The Following Specifications For The Standard Method Of Conducting The Rattler Test Of Paving Brick, Which Have Been Widely Adopted. 1. ...

Obstruction By Snow
Obstruction By Snow. In Localities Subject To Heavy Falls Of Snow, It Is An Important Matter To Keep The Roads From Be Coming Obstructed By It During The Winter. In Some Countries Where There Is Only An Occasional Fall Of Snow, As In France, It Is Customary To Remove It ...

Pavement Economics Benefits Of
Pavement Economics Benefits Of Pavements. The Effect Of Pavements Upon City Life Is So Important And So Far Reaching That No Enumeration Is Likely To Include All Of The Benefits; But Nevertheless It Will Be Of Advantage, Particularly In Discussing The Proper Distribution Of Their Cost, To Enumerate Some Of ...

Permissible Grades
Permissible Grades. Table 50 Shows The Steepest Grades Of Brick Pavement In Actual Use In 1900 In The Cities Named. "the Fact That Such Steep Grades Are In Use, May Not Be Taken As A Reason For Imitation, But May Furnish Conclusive Reasons For Avoidance. The Most Useful Information On ...

Placing The Line
Placing The Line. The Controlling Points Of A Line Are Certain Points At Which The Position Of The Road Is Restricted Within Narrow Limits And Is Not Subject To Change. These May Be Points Where The Location Is Governed By The Necessity Of Providing An Out Let For The Traffic, ...

Plank Roads
Plank Roads. Plank Roads Were Once Somewhat Common In The Heavily Timbered Portion Of The Northern United States And Of Canada. The First Plank Road On This Continent Was Built In Canada In 1836. These Roads Are Practicable Only Where Timber Is Plentiful And Cheap, Where Stone Or Gravel Is ...

Plank Walks
Plank Walks. In The Past Plank Sidewalks Have Been Very Common, But Owing To The Increasing Cost Of Lumber And To The Introduction Of Bricks For Walks, They Are Much Less Common Now Than Formerly. There Is Great Variety In The Forms Of Con Struction Employed; But As A Rule ...

Power Of A Horse
Power Of A Horse. The Horizontal Pull Which A Horse Can Exert Depends Upon Its Weight, Its Form Or Build, The Method Of Hitching, The Foothold Afforded By The Surface, The Speed, The Length Of Duration Of The Effort, The Rest-time Between Efforts, And The Tax Upon The Future Efficiency ...

Preparing The Subgrade For
Preparing The Subgrade For Broken--stone The Broken Stone Is De Signed To Take The Wear Of Hoofs And Wheels, But The Earth Founda Tion Must Support The Load, And Therefore Any Road Which Is Con Structed Without Giving Due Attention To The Earth Road-bed Is Wrong From The Start, And ...

Preservation Of Wood
Preservation Of Wood. A Wood Pavement Fails Through Wear And Decay. A Number Of Methods Have Been In Vented For Increasing• The Durability Of Timber Against Decay; And Although These Methods Have Been Employed To A Considerable Extent For Preserving Piles, Railroad Ties, And Bridge Timbers, They Have Been Used ...

Prevention Of Dust
Prevention Of Dust. Loam And Clay Roads Are Im Proved By A Little Moisture—just Enough To Keep Them Damp And Dark Without Making Them Soft Or Spongy. In Dry Climates The Roads Not Only Become Excessively Dusty, Which Is A Great Discom Fort, But Also Wear Into Pot-holes, Which Are ...

Requirements Of An Ideal
Requirements Of An Ideal Pavement. The Perfect Pavement Is An Ideal Which Will Never Be Attained, Since Some Of The Qualities Required In A Perfect Pavement Are Antagonistic To Each Other. For Instance, Perfect Durability Would Require A Pavement Without Friction, For Friction Causes Wear And Ultimately Destruction Of The ...

Requisites For Road Gravel
Requisites For Road Gravel. To Be Suitable For Road-buil( Ling Purposes, Gravel Should Fulfill The Following Conditions: 1. The Fragments Should Be So Hard And Tough As Not Easily To Be Ground Into The Dust By The Impact Of Wheels And Hoofs. 2. The Pebbles Should Be Of Different Sizes, ...

Requisites For Road Stone
Requisites For Road Stone. The Principal Requi Sites Of A Material For A Broken-stone Road Are Hardness, Tough Ness, Cementing Or Binding Power, And Resistance To The Weather. Usually Any Stone That Is Hard And Tough Will Resist The Weather Reasonably Well; But Shales And Slates, Though Hard And Tough ...

Road Administration
Road Administration. Up To The Present Time, With But Few Exceptions, The Management Of Roads Has Rested Upon Local Authorities, Either Those Of Townships Or Counties. In Those Cases In Which The Administration Of Road Affairs Is Nominally In The Hands Of The County Authorities, Nothing Has Usually Been Done ...

Road Building Machinery
Road-building Machinery. In Recent Years There Has Been A Great Advance In The Machinery Employed In Building Earth Roads. The Wheelbarrow Was Formerly Much Used For Short Hauls, But Has Been Superseded By Some Form Of Drag Scraper (§ 137) Drawn By Horses, And Is Never Used Now Except For ...

Road Location Elements
Road Location Elements Involved.in General The Determination Of The Best Location For A Road Requires A Study Of The Topographical Fea Tures Of The Region Through Which The Road Is To Pass, And Also An Investigation Of The Nature And Extent Of The Traffic To Be Provided For. Viewed As ...

Road Taxes
Road Taxes. How Shall The Expense Of Constructing And Maintaining Roads Be Distributed? This Question Has Been Answered In Various Ways In Different Parts Of This Country And In Different Countries Of Europe. There Are Three Forms Of Road Taxes; Viz.: (1) A Tax Upon The Traveler, (2) A Capitation ...

Rollers For Broken Stone
Rollers For Broken--stone The Roller Is Indispensable For The Economic Construction Of Broken-stone Roads. Roads Can Be Built Without The Use Of A Roller, But Always At Large Expense To The Traffic And With Great Waste Of The Road Metal; And Such Roads Never Have As Smooth A Surface And ...

Rolling The Stone
Rolling The Stone. Rolling Is A Very Important Part Of The Construction Of A Broken-stone Road. The Subgrade Should Be Rolled To Prevent The Stone From Being Forced Into The Earth. The Lower Course Of The Stone Should Be Rolled To Compact It, So That The Pieces Will Not Move ...

Rolling The Subgrade
Rolling The Subgrade. The Finished Subgrade Should Be Thoroughly Rolled To Consolidate The Surface And Also To Discover Any Soft Places—particularly Over Trenches That Have Not Been Solidly Filled. If The Roller Reveals A Low Place, It Should Be Filled With Earth And Be Rolled Again. The Roller, Whatever Its ...

Rumbling Brick
Rumbling - Brick If All The Joints Of A Brick Pavement Are Filled With Cement Grout, Vehicles In Going Over The Pavement Are Likely To Produce A Considerable Rumble Or Roar, Due Apparently To A Hollow Space Between The Bricks And The Foundation. At Times This Rumbling Is Very Pronounced. ...

Sandstone
Sandstone. Sandstones Are Rocks Made Up Of Grains Of Sand Which Are Cemented Together By Siliceous, Ferruginous, Calca Reous, Or Argillaceous Material. In Most Cases The Cementing Ma Terial Determines The Color, The Various Shades Of Red And Yellow Being Due To Iron Oxide, The Purple Tints To Oxide Of ...

Selecting The Best Pavement
Selecting The Best Pavement. The Problem Of Se Lecting The Best Pavement For Any Particular Case Is A Local One, Not Only For Each City But Also For Each Of The Various Parts Into Which The City Is Imperceptibly Divided, And It Involves So Many Elements That The Nicest Balancing ...

Setting The Blocks
Setting The Blocks. In Placing The Blocks, The Work Man Should Stand Upon The Finished Work, That The Sand Cushion May Not Be Disturbed; But He Usually Stands On The Sand Cushion, The Blocks Being Piled On The Sand Bed Behind The Paver. The Workman With The Pointed End Of ...

Setting The Telford
Setting The Telford. The Distinguishing Feature Of A Telford Road Is Its Paved Foundation. After The Road-bed Has Been Brought To The Proper Form And Been Rolled, Rough Stones Are Set Upon The Surface To Form A Pavement 5 To 8 Inches Thick, The Thickness Depending Upon That To Be ...