DEFINITIONS OF THE TERMS USED IN MASONRY.
Abutment: (1) That portion of the masonry of a bridge or dam upon which the ends rest, and which connects the superstruc ture with the adjacent banks. (2) A structure that receives the lateral thrust of an arch.
Arris: The external angle or edge formed by the meeting of two plane or curved surfaces, whether walls or the sides of a stick or stone.
Backed: Built on the rear face.
Backing: The rough masonry of a wall faced with cut stone.
Batter: The slope or inclination given to the face of a wall. It is expressed by dividing the height by the horizontal distance. It is described by stating the extent of the deviation from the vertical, as one in twelve, or one inch to the foot.
Bats: Broken bricks.
Bearing Blocks or Templets : Small blocks of stone built in the wall to support the ends of particular beams.
Belt Stones or Courses : Horizontal bands or zones of stone encircling a building or extending through a wall.
Blocking Course : A course of stone placed on the top of a cornice, crowning the walls.
Bond : The disposing of the blocks of stone or bricks in the walls so as to form the whole into a firm structure by a judicious over lapping of each other so as to break joint.
A stone or brick which is laid with its length across the wall, or extends through the facing course into that behind, so as to bind the facing to the backing, is called a "header" or "bond." Bonds are described by various names, as: Binders, when they extend only a part of the distance across the wall.
Through Bonds, when they extend clear across from face to back. Heart Bonds, when two headers meet in the middle of the wall and the joint between them is covered by another header.
Perpend Bond signifies that a header extends through the whole thickness of the wall.
Chain Bond is the building into the masonry of an iron bar, chain, or heavy timber.
Cross Bond, in which the joints of the second stretcher course come in the middle of the first; a course composed of headers and stretchers intervening.
Block and Cross Bond, when the face of the wall is put up in cross bond and the backing in block bond.
English Bond (brick masonry) consists of alternate courses of headers and stretchers.
Flemish Bond (brick masonry) consists of alternate headers and stretchers in the same course.
Blind Bond is used to tie the front course to the wall in pressed brick work where it is not desirable that any headers should be seen in the face work.
To form this bond the face brick is trimmed or clipped off at both ends, so that it will admit a binder to set in transversely from the face of the wall, and every layer of these binders should be tied with a header course the whole length of the wall. The binder should be put in every fifth course, and the backing should be done in a most substantial manner, with hard brick laid in close joints, for the reason that the face work is laid in a fine putty mortar, and the joints con sequently close and tight; and if the backing is not the same the pressure upon the wall will make it settle and draw the wall inward. The common form of bond in brickwork is to lay three or five courses as stretchers, then a header course.
Breast Wall : One built to prevent the falling of a vertical face cut into the natural soil; in distinction to a retaining wall, etc.
Brick Ashlar : Walls with ashlar facing backed with bricks.
Build or Rise : That dimension of the stone which is per pendicular to the quarry bed.
Buttress : A vertical projecting piece of stone or brick masonry built in front of a wall to strengthen it.
Closers are pieces of brick or stone inserted in alternate courses of brick and broken ashlar masonry to obtain a bond.
Cleaning Down consists in washing and scrubbing the stone work with muriatic acid and water. Wire brushes are generally used for marble and sometimes for sandstone. Stiff bristle brushes are ordinarily used. The stones should be scrubbed until all mortar stains and dirt are entirely removed.