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# Superposition of the Orders 116

## columns, story, upper, height, lower and base

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SUPERPOSITION OF THE ORDERS.

## 116.

The principles governing superposition, or the use of orders one above the other, as we find thorn in many of the Roman and Renaissance buildings, is that the natural method is followed in placing a lighter and apparently more delicate order above one of greater strength. For instance, the Tuscan should never be other than the lowest order, and the Dorie should be placed above this. As we have already seen, however, the Tuscan Order may better be omitted and the Doric Order may be placed in the lowest story with the Ionic and Corinthian above in the order named.

117. It sometimes happens that the same order is employed in two different stories, in which case the upper example should be more slender and of less diameter than that below. This rule holds good for any superposition of the orders. Usually the base diameter of the shaft above is the same as the diameter at the neck of the shaft below. In section, or in side elevation, it is the practice to make each order recede slightly from the face of the one below. In other words, the base or square plinth beneath the column in the upper story should be plumb with the face of the frieze of the order of the story below. This gives an appearance of stability which is quite appreciable and prevents the upper orders from seeming to overpower and overweigh the below.

118. If columns are coupled and set exactly over each other, there is slight tendency for the space between the columns in the upper story to seem too wide. This may be avoided by taking the center line of the space between the lowest couple and then draw the columns in toward each other on each successive story; keep ing them in the same relation to each other and equally spaced on each side of the center line.

119. Facades of edifices of two stories sometimes have an order occupying the whole height of the upper story, the lower story being treated as a pedestal for this order. An example of this combination is seen in Fig. 21. The lower story or ground

floor, raised on three steps, is composed of an arcade crowned by an entablature to which may be applied the details of the Tuscan order. Above this entablature is a Tuscan or a Doric order with arches whose axes correspond to those of the lower arches. This order is raised on a double plinth which forms the base of the arcade.

120. The use of an order in the upper story of a two-storied facade offers few difficulties and generally produces a good effect; the proportional height of the base to the order which surmounts it depends entirely on the height of the stories. In this plate the height of the ground story of the facade has been assumed to be six entablatures of the second-story order.

121. The succeeding plates offer an opportunity to study the various methods and combinations in which columns attached to a wall, and called "engaged columns," are used. Such columns were much employed by the ancient Romans in a manner which modern architects have frequently imitated. The engaged columns form a projecting part that in certain instances adds greatly to the per spective effect of a facade, and sometimes serves also as an addi tional support; but in many instances pilasters would be preferable, especially on the angles of a building. The columns are generally engaged in the walls for from one-third to one-quarter of their diameter.

122. The Romans have also left famous examples of super position of the orders in the facades of their theatres and amphi theatres, although such a combination is not considered as effec tive as an order superposed on an arcade, as in Fig. 21.

123. It has been explained that the lower order in a superpo sition should be a little larger than the one next above it. In Fig. 22 the height of the upper columns is three entablatures seventy-five parts of the lower order, whose columns are four entab latures in height (as is shown by the figures at the left-hand margin).

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