KNOTS, BENDS, HITCHES, SPLICES AND SEIZINGS These are all ways of fastening together the parts of one or more ropes, cords, etc., or of attaching a rope to some such object as a ring or spar. In the narrow sense, a "knot" is a knob on a rope, usually formed by untwisting the strands at an end and weaving them together (cf. "wall knot," fig. 2G), though sometimes by turning the rope on itself through a loop (cf. "overhand knot," fig. IA). A "bend" and a "hitch" are ways of fastening ropes to one another or to spars, etc. A "splice" is made by untwisting two rope ends and weaving them together. A "seizing" is made by fastening together two spars, two ropes, or two parts of the same rope by means of another rope. The use of the various terms is, however, often arbitrary. Generally speaking, the knot and seiz ing are meant to be permanent and must be unwoven in order to be unfastened, while the bend and hitch can be undone, at once, by pulling the ropes in the reverse direction from that in which they are meant to hold. The governing principle in the design of these last is that the strain which pulls against them shall draw them together.
Many forms of fastening are employed on shipboard and in in dustry. Some of the more important ones are here described and pictured; for further details, the reader is referred to any book on seamanship. In the figures, the knots are in general drawn very slack and open, so that their structure may be more plainly exhibited.
Figure-of-Eight Knot (fig. i-B). Turned in the end of a rope to prevent unreeving. It will not jam as an overhand does.
Square, or Reef Knot (fig. 1-C). Two overhand knots turned in opposite ways. Should be carefully distinguished from the Granny (fig. 1-D) which jams when it does not slip. A square knot is unsat isfactory for uniting ropes of different sizes, as the parts will slip unless stopped down. For fastenings of a temporary nature the second knot is sometimes turned over a bight in the end a of one of the ropes (fig. 1-E). By a pull on a, the knot can be slipped
loose. A Thief Knot (fig. 1-F), though similar in appearance to a square knot, will slip under a strain applied to the two standing parts b and b'. To make a Surgeon's Knot (fig. 1-G), take an addi tional twist after turning the first overhand, and draw the partially completed knot taut. The parts will be held in place by the friction of the cord while the second overhand is being tied. Used in tying a ligature around a cut artery.
Half-Hitch (fig. 1-H). Pass the end of the rope round the stand ing part b and through the bight. Half-Hitch over Pin (fig. I-I). Should be made so as to continue the lay of the rope about the pin. Midshipman's Hitch (fig. i-J).
Slippery-Hitch (fig. 1-K). Pass the end a under a belaying pin or cleat and tuck a bight under the standing part b. Can be slipped loose by a pull on a.
Bowline (fig. i-L). Forms a loop that cannot slip. A very com mon and useful knot. Lay the end a over the standing part b; form with b a bight c over a ; take a round behind b and through the bight c. Running Bowline (fig. 1-M) is a convenient temporary running noose. Formed by making a bowline over its own stand ing part. Bowline on a Bight (fig. 1-N) is a more comfortable sling for a man than a simple bowline. Double the rope on itself ; start as if to make a bowline in the doubled rope, but finish by passing the loop c around the loop b.
Sheepshank (fig. 1-0). Used for temporarily shortening a rope. A half hitch is taken with the standing parts a round the bights b.
Blackwall Hitch (fig. 1-P). Form a bight at the end of the rope and put the hook of the tackle through the bight so that the end of the rope may be jammed between the standing part and the hook. This and the next two are used for hooking tackle on to the end of a rope.
Double Blackwall, or Stunner Hitch (fig. 1-Q). Pass the end a twice round the hook under the standing part b at the last cross.