The Bibliotheque du Senat (1818) contains 170,000 vols., and 1,345 mss. There are also the following law libraries: Office de legislation etrangere (80,000 vols.) ; Faculte de droit of the University (172,00o vols.) ; Cour d'appel, Ordre des avocats (1871), 8o,000 vols. (printed catalogue, 188o-82) ; avocats de la Cour de Cassation, and Cour de Cassation. The City of Paris owns, among other libraries, the Bibliotheque Historique de la Ville de Paris, destroyed in 1871 but restored in 1872 (about half a million vols.) ; the Forney (industrial art), and those of pre fectures, hospitals and schools. The arrondissements have each from three to six popular libraries, the stocks ranging from 2,000 to 17,000 vols., and averaging about 6,000. A few have children's libraries. The Association des Bibliothecaires Francais in 1928 urged a development of popular public libraries in France generally. Educational.-The library of the university is that of the Sorbonne (1762), originally including only arts and theology. In 1800 it was the Bibliotheque du Prytanee, in 1808 des Quatres Lycees, and in 1812 de l'Universite de France. The faculty sections now are: (I) Sciences et des Lettres a la Sorbonne, (2) Medecine, (3) Droit, (4) Pharmacie. Before the separation of Church and State there was also (5) Protestant Theology. After the Bibliotheque Nationale, it is the richest, and above all in the fields of classics, archaeology and literature, philosophy. mathematics and physics. Installed since the year 1897 in the New Sorbonne, it is a library of the very first rank. The section of Sciences et Lettres has 700,000 printed books and 1,590 mss. Amongst important bequests are those of Leclerc, Peccot, Lavisse, Derenbourg and Beljame (the last including an important Shake spearian library).
At the Sorbonne are also to be found the libraries of the laboratories, notably the geological. The section relating to
medicine, housed since 1891 in the new buildings of the Faculte de Medecine, includes 337,000 vols. and 85 mss. The Bibliotheque de la Facult6 de Droit (1772), contains 172,000 vols. The fourth section, Faculte (formerly Ecole superieure) de Pharmacie, greatly developed since 1882, now contains 61,00o vols. The section of art and archaeology contains ioo,000 vols., recently enriched by the gift of the Jacques Doucet library.
The other libraries connected with higher education include that of the Ecole des Beaux-Arts (40,00o vols., 100,000 reproductions, 14,000 drawings) ; Ecole normale superieure (1794), has a portion of Cuvier's library, there are 400,000 vols. ; Ecole des Charles (50,000 vols.). The library of the Museum d'histoire naturelle (18th century) has 225,000 vols., 2,300 mss., 8,600 original drawings on vellum from 1631. The Bibliotheque de l'Office et Musee de l'Instruction publique (formerly Musee pedagogique), 188o, has ioo,000 volumes. The other principal museums (Louvre, Cluny, Guimet, etc.) have large working libraries for the curators and students. In 1760 was founded the Bibliotheque de 1'Institut de France, which is very rich; its acquisitions come particularly from gifts and exchanges (600,000 vols., 4,369 mss.), especially the modern one, the Fondation Thiers (75,000 vols. and 1,00o mss.), is attached to the Institut. Among other libraries may be mentioned those of the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Declamation (1775) ; Observatoire (25,000 vols.) ; Institut Catholique (180,000 vols.) ; Conservatoire national des arts et metiers (6o,000 vols.) ; Polonaise (attached to the Academie polonaise des sciences et lettres) containing the musee Adam Mickiewcz (120,000 vols., 12,000 mss. and autographs, 30,000 prints) ; and the Comedie Francaise (30,00o vols. and 1,700 mss.).
Before the Revolution there were, in Paris alone, 'J o° libraries with two million volumes. In 1791 more than 800,00o vols. were seized in Parisian religious houses and transferred to eight "depots litteraires," while, in the provinces, six million vols. were seized and transferred to similar local depositories. The organization of the central libraries (decree of 3 Brumaire An IV.-Oct. 25, 1795), came to nothing, but the consular edict of Jan. 28, 2803, organized the local depots, and the library system was recon stituted, alike in Paris and the provinces. Many precious books and mss. were burnt, since by the decree of 4 Brumaire An II. (Oct. 25, 1793) the Committee of Instruction ordered, on the proposition of its president, the deputy Romme, the destruction or modification of supposedly feudalist books and objects of art.