Among the other libraries of Hesse the chief are the University library at Giessen and the Stadtbibliothek at Mainz (including the Gutenberg museum).
In the Grand Duchy of Baden are the Badische (formerly Hof- und) Landes-Bibliothek at Carlsruhe (276,947 vols., 4,830 mss.), the University libraries at Freiburg i./B. (420,00o vols., 70o mss.), and Heidelberg (1386), the oldest of the German University libraries. In 1623 the whole collection of the last named was given to the pope, and only the German mss. were returned. The library was re-established in 1703, and after 1800 enriched with monastic spoils; it now contains 928,301 vols., apart from dissertations etc., 3,721 mss., and about 5,200 papyri, for the most part of great value.
In other German States should be mentioned Jena, Rostock, Schwerin, Weimar, all possessing rich collections of mss. The Ducal library of Gotha was established by Duke Ernest the Pious in the 17th century, and contains many valuable books and mss. from monastic collections. It numbers about 250,00o vols., with 7,728 mss. The catalogue of the oriental mss., chiefly collected by Seetzen, and forming one-half of the collection, is one of the best in existence.
The Herzog August (formerly Landes) library at Wolfenbiittel, founded in the second half of the 16th century by Duke Julius, was made over to the university of Helmstedt in 1614, whence the most important treasures were returned to Wolfenbiittel in the i9th century; it now numbers 350,00o vols., and 8,400 mss., and is exceptionally rich in incunabula.
The chief libraries of the Hanse towns are those of Bremen, Lubeck and Hamburg (Staats- und Universitats- formerly Stadt bibliothek), made public since 1648 (68o,000 vols., 12,652 mss., among them many Mexican). Hamburg has also, in the Kom merzbibliothek (175,000 vols.), a valuable trade collection.
has also been entitled to the copy-privilege. The number of printed vols. is 1,210,00o; 9,00o incunabula. The mss. amount to 27,00o (2,36o oriental), with ioo,000 papyri of the collection of Arch duke Rainer. The main room is one of the most splendid in Europe. The collection of prints was separated from the books in 1921 and annexed to the Albertina. The University library of Vienna (1775) 1,050,00o vols., was established by Maria Theresa, and is open to all; this library also lends.
The number of libraries in Vienna enumerated by Bohatta and Holzmann is 165; 25 of the chief are described by R. Teichl, Wiener Bibliotheksfiihrer und Plan (1926).
The number of monastic libraries in Austria is very consider able. They possess altogether more than 2,500,000 printed vols., 25,000 incunabula and 25,00o mss. The oldest library in Austria is that of the monastery of St. Peter at Salzburg (785-821), 70,00o vols., nearly 1,500 incunabula. Kremsmiinster (ioo,000), Admont (86,000) and Melk (7o,000), date from the i ith cen tury. Account of their mss. appear from time to time in Zentral blatt fur Bibliothekswesen. Many of their librarians are trained in the great Vienna libraries.