Conducted by the State library are the Gesamtkatalog der Preussischen wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken (describing the printed books in the Royal library and the Prussian University libraries in one general catalogue upon slips), the Auskunftsbilro der Deutschen Bibliotheken (founded in 1905 to give information where any particular book may be consulted), and the Kommis sion fiir den Gesamtkatalog der Wiegendrucke (a complete cata logue of books printed before 150o), of which 3 vols. out of 12 or more, appeared by 1928. For most of these improvements and for many others credit is due to Friedrich Althoff, for 25 years Prussian minister for education.
The University library (1831) numbers 381,000 vols., exclusive of dissertations. The library possesses the right to receive a copy of every work published in the province of Brandenburg.
Some of the governmental libraries are important, mostly those of Berlin, especially those of the War Office (363,00o vols.), Statistisches Landesamt (260,344 vols.) ; Reichstag (277,500 vols.) ; and Patent-Amt (257,000 vols.).
The Prussian University libraries outside Berlin include Bonn printed vols., 2,140 mss.), Breslau (545,305 printed vols., mss.), Gottingen, from its foundation, in 1736-37, the best administered library of the 18th century (734,949 vols., 8,134 mss.), Kiel, Konigsberg, Marburg, Miinster. Largely in consequence of the impoverishment of the years after 1918 the university libraries practise a division of the field of knowledge : according to Dr. Balcke. (C. Balcke "The German Library World," in The Library Association Record, 1927, pp. 101-121, the only recent general account of German libraries ; this section is in part based upon it.) Bonn collects Romance, Gottingen English, Kiel Scandinavian, Breslau Slavonic, Heidelberg art and archaeology, Konigsberg philosophy, Leipzig Italian and oriental, Tubingen theology and oriental, Berlin German and foreign acad emics, and Griefswald Low German. Under provincial adminis tration are the (formerly) Konigliche and Provinzialbibliothek at Hanover (232,000 printed vols., 4,083 mss.), and the Landesbib liothek at Cassel (230,00o printed vols., 4,400 mss.). Frankfurt a/M., Cologne and other large towns possess excellent municipal libraries.
Munich.-The libraries of Munich include two of great im portance. The State (formerly Royal) library was founded by Duke Albrecht V. of Bavaria (1550-79), who made numerous
purchases from Italy, and incorporated the libraries of the Nurem berg physician and historian Schedel, of Widmannstadt, and of J. J. Fugger. The number of printed vols. is estimated at 1,580,000 and about 50,00o mss. The library has 16,00o incuna bula, many from the monastic libraries closed in 1803. The oriental mss. are numerous and valuable, and include the library of Martin Haug. The catalogue of the printed books are in manu script; printed catalogue of mss. (1858). The University library (850,000 vols., 4,000 incunabula, 4,000 mss., 45,000 vols. on reference shelves) was originally founded at Ingolstadt in 1472, and removed with the university to Munich in 1826. After these two the most noteworthy is the Bayrische Armee-Bibliothek (156,950 vols.).
The chief Bavarian libraries outside Munich are the State (formerly Royal) library at Bamberg (400,000 vols., 4,32o mss.) and the University library at Wiirzburg (600,000 vols., 1,750 mss.). The University of Erlangen, Augsburg and Nuremberg have large libraries ; at the last is also that of the Germanisches National museum (300,000 vols., 4,000 mss.).
Dresden.-In 1906 there were in Dresden 78 public libraries with about volumes. The Sachsische (formerly Konig liche) Landes-bibliothek in the Japanese palace was founded in the 16th century, specializes in history and literature, and has 694,800 vols. and 460,000 pamphlets, with 7,000 mss.
Leipzig University library has 675,000 vols. ; the Padagogische Central-Bibliothek der Comenius-Stiftung (283,010 vols.) is per haps the largest educational library in the world. The Deutsche Bucherei has already been mentioned. The University library of Tiibingen (713,589 vols. and 4,409 mss.) is the largest library in Wurttemberg.
Stuttgart.-The Royal Public Library of Stuttgart (1765) possesses 481,236 vols., 263,041 pamphlets, and 6,797 mss., with a famous collection of Bibles. The library also enjoys the copy privilege in Wurttemberg. The former Royal private library. founded in 181o, contains about 105,000 vols.