FURRING STRIPS, LATH, AND PLASTER. The inside of the wall is furred with one by two-inch strips placed sixteen inches on centers to receive the wood lath. Where expanded metal lath or galvanized wire lath is employed, the furring strips should be set not over twelve inches on centers. The furring and lathing are frequently omitted, and the plaster applied directly to the brickwork. In such cases, the joints of the masonry are raked out about one-half inch, so as to give a clinch to the plaster; and the entire inner surface of the wall, before the plastering is applied, is given a coat of damp-resisting paint so as to prevent moisture from penetrating the wall and staining or discoloring the plaster. When the furring and lathing are omitted, wood bricks are built into the wall for a nailing for the wood finish.
Another method employed when it is desired to omit the furring and lathing, is to make the inner four inches of the wall of hollow brick, the hollow spaces in the bricks providing an air space which prevents moisture from pene trating.
Framing for Fine Casement Windows. Fig. 97 shows a somewhat better form of construc tion than that just described, for casement win dows opening outward in brick walls. It has been designed with a view to show only a nar row margin of wood frame about the sashes; and for this purpose the masonry opening is rebated to receive the bulky part of the frame. . The wall, which is sixteen inches in thick ness, is of brick, and the opening is spanned on the top with a flat arch of brick ground to the proper radius. Back of this face arch, a row lock relieving arch is turned over a timber back lintel; and the space between the top of the lintel and the soffit of the relieving arch is filled in with brick, and is known as the core of the arch. When the head of a window extends nearly to the ceiling of the room, it is necessary to provide a steel or cast-iron lintel, instead of the timber lintel and relieving arch, to support the ends of the beams.
A stone sill is provided at the bottom of the opening, and is cut with a wash so as to pitch off water, and at each end has raised stools or lugs to receive the brick imposts. It is tailed
into the masonry four inches at each end, extends under the wooden sill at least two inches, and has a drip cut on the under side of the projecting portion.
The window-frame is made from three-inch by three-inch stock, rebated for sash, and plowed for jamb and head linings. It is set in the masonry rebate, and is anchored in place by means of galvanized wrought-iron anchors of the form shown, screwed into the frame and built into the joints of brickwork.
The wall is furred on the inside with one inch by two-inch strips set sixteen inches on centers; and to these strips are nailed grounds for base, trim, etc., and wood lath for plaster ing. When expanded metal or wire lath is used, the furring strips should be set twelve inches on centers.
The trim is moulded and worked out of one inch by four-inch stock, and has a plain back band, a face-mould, and a small wall-mould. Wall-moulds should be small enough to be pli able so as to fit the unevenness of the finished plaster. The trim finishes on a moulded stool, tongued into the wooden sill and finished with an apron. Where deep jambs occur on the inside of windows, paneled head and jamb linings are preferable to the plain linings shown.
Use of Temporary Frames during Construc tion. In important work it frequently happens that the window-frames are not built in as the walls are carried up, because of the danger of damaging them by hauling in materials through the windows. In such cases, rough timber bucks about two inches by four inches are built into the masonry, and the frames are set and nailed to the bucks after all the rough structural work of the building is completed. The heads and sills of the bucks are allowed to project three or four inches over the jamb bucks; and the projecting portions are built into the masonry so as to securely anchor them in place.