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The Grocer's Encyclopedia by Artemas Ward (1911)

Frosting
Frosting: A Domestic Term For Meringue Or Icing For Cakes. See Icing. Ary Foods, Some Fruits Of Minor Food Percentages (lemons And Oranges, For Example), Are As Desirable And Useful As They Are Delicious. Lemons, Limes And Similar Fruits Popularly Known As "acid" Or "sour," Hold Most Of Their Merit ...

Garum
Garum: A Heavily Salted And Highly Seasoned Sauce Or Relish Made From Fish—prin Cipally From Those Of The Scomber Family, As The Tunny, Mackerel, Etc.,—in The State Of Fermentation, The Flesh Itself Or The Blood And Gills Being Variously Employed. The Gramm Of The Romans Was Generally Prepared From The ...

Giblets
Giblets: A Term Which Formerly Signified Only The Entrails Of Poultry, But Is Now Applied To Parts And Trimmings Such As The Heart, Liver, Gizzard, Neck, And Ends Of The Wings And Legs. Dation Of All Holland Gin. From It, By A Fourth Distillation, Each Distiller Makes A Number Of ...

Ginger
Ginger: In Its Commercial Form, Is The Root-stock Of The Ginger Plant (see Illus Tration In Color Page Facing 580), A Perennial Reed-like Plant With Annual Leafy Stems, Three To Four Feet High, Which Grows Freely In Moist Places In All Tropical Climates. The Root Is Gathered When The Stalk ...

Gloucester Cheese
Gloucester Cheese. See Sub-head In General Article On Cheese. Glucin: A Very Sweet Coal-tar Product Resembling Saccharin (which See). Glucose—natural: Is A Technical Name Given To A Group Of Sugars Found In Fruit, Honey, Etc. The Most Important Examples Are Dextrose And Levulose, Frequently Called "grape Sugar" And "fruit Sugar," ...

Glue
Glue: Is Obtained From The Hides And Hoofs Of Oxen And A Great Variety Of Other Animal Refuse. The Raw Material Is First Steeped For Fourteen Or Fifteen Days In Milk Of Lime, Then Drained And Dried By Exposure To The Air. This Constitutes What Is Called The "cleans Ing" ...

Goose
Goose. Geese Have Been Raised As Pets Or For The Table As Far Back As History Reaches And They Are Known And Enjoyed To-day In Every Part Of The World. They Are, Perhaps, The Most Popu Lar In Germany, Where They Are Eaten In A Great Many Different Forms—fresh Cooked, ...

Grapes
Grapes: The Fruit Of Vines Of Many Species, Both American And European. They Are Largely Consumed As A Fresh Fruit, Expressed For Grape Juice, Dried As "raisins" And Made Into Wines, Brandy, Vinegar, Etc. The Fermented Juice Also Gives Cream Or Tartar ( Which See). The Vines Live To A ...

Grocer
Grocer. Since The Grocer As We Know Him In America Is Directly Descended From His English Compeer, The Early History Of The Latter May Properly Be Considered As Also Belonging To The Western Branch Of This Ancient Trade. Prior To The Opening Of The Twelfth Century, Established Shops For The ...

Grouse
Grouse. The Title "grouse" Is Applied To A Large Family Of American Game Birds, The Most Important Of Which Are The Ruffed Grouse, Prairie Chicken, Sharp-tailed Grouse, Dusky Grouse, Black Heath Cock, Sage Grouse, Capercailze And Ptarmigan. In The East, Custom Generally Reserves The Title "grouse" For The Prairie Chicken ...

Guava
Guava (see Tropical Fruits Facing Pagc 588) : The Fruit Of The Guava Tree, Of Which There Are About One Hundred Species, Growing Abundantly In Tropical America, Mexico And The West Indies. That Of The Cultivated Varieties Average About The Size Of A Hen's Egg Or Larger And Is Of ...

Guinea Fowl
Guinea Fowl. The Guinea Fowl, A Native Of Africa But Now Found In Nearly Every Part Of The World, Is, Compared With The "chicken," A New Arrival In The Poul Try Yard. It Belongs To The Same Natural Order, Gallinae, As The Common Domestic Fowl. It Was Raised As A ...

Gunpowder
Gunpowder: Is An Explosive Formed By A Mechanical Mixture Of Saltpetre (nitrate Of Potassium), Charcoal And Sulphur Or Brimstone, The Proportion Of These Ingredients Varying Slightly With Different Manufacturers. With Minor Modifications, The Best Grades Of Modern Make Consist Of 75% Saltpetre, 15% Charcoal And 10% Sulphur. It Seems Extraordinary ...

Halibut
Halibut (see Color Page Facing 250 ) : A Large Flat-fish, Longer Than The Flounder, Covered With Scales And Showing Brown Above And White On Its Under Side. It Is Very Abundant On Most Northern Coasts From Norway To The United States, And Is Often Of Great Size—some Specimens Have ...

Herring
Herring. There Are Several Species Of This Favorite And Much Used Fish, The Chief Being The Clupea Harengus Of Northern Europe And America And The Clupea Bilis Of The Pacific Coast Of The United States. The Principal American Fisheries Are Located Along The New England Coasts And In British-american Waters. ...

Honey
Honey: Is The Sucrose Secreted By The Glands Of Flowers, Extracted By The Proboscides Of The Working Bees And Inverted In Their Crops Or Honey Bags Into Invert Sugar Or Dextrose And Levulose Sugars (see Article On Glucose). At The Hive, The Bee Disgorges His Burden Into The Cells Of ...

Horse Radish
Horse Radish: A Plant Allied To The Nasturtium Or Cress Family, Naturalized In Many Temperate Countries. It Is Grown For Its White, Fleshy, Very Pungent Roots, Which Are Generally Grated And Mixed With Vinegar For Use As A Condiment With Oysters, Meat, Etc. Grated Horse Radish Is Best When Freshest—if ...

Huckleberries
Huckleberries. The Huckleberry, Blueberry, Bilberry And Cranberry Constitute The Principal Members Of A Large Family Of Edible Berries, Botanically Classed Together. Cranberries (which See) Are Easily And Naturally Distinguished By Their Red Color, But The Titles Of Huckleberry, Blueberry And Bilberry Are Variously And Contradictorily Employed In Different Localities. By ...

Ice Cream
Ice Cream: Originally Signified A Frozen Mixture Of Sweetened Milk Or Cream, But The Term Has For Many Genera Tions Been Applied To A Wide Range Of Frozen Delicacies Of Widely Differing Com Position—varying From The Original Plain Milk Or Cream Basis To The Most Fancy French And Italian Mixtures, ...

Ice And Refrigeration
Ice And Refrigeration. Va Rious Methods Of Freezing Water Have Been In Use To A Small Extent For Some Hundreds Of Years, But The Modern Indus Try Of Ice Manufacture And Refrigeration, Now Of Considerable Magnitude And Great Dates From About The Year 1870. At That Time There Were Four ...

Indigo
Indigo: A Vegetable Dyestuff Of Much Value, Obtained From Several Plants Native To India And America. The Fresh Plant Juice Is Colorless, But When The Plant Is Steeped In Water And Fermentation Sets In, The Coloring Matter Dissolves In The Water, Forming A Yellow Solu Tion, Which Is Drawn Off ...

Irish Moss Carragheen
Carragheen, Irish Moss, Pearl Moss : A Species Of Edible Seaweed Named After The Town Of Carragheen, Near Waterford, Ireland, Found On The Coasts Of The British Islands, The Rocky Shores Of Continental Europe And The Eastern Shores Of The Northern United States And Canada. Similar Varieties Abound Also On ...

Italian Wines
Italian Wines. Italy Ranks Second In The Production Of Wine, Its Estimated Yield Being Nearly A Billion Gallons A Year. The Greater Part Of This Is Retained For Domes Tic Consumption, And Of The Export The States Receives Only A Comparatively Small Percentage, The Bulk Going To South American Countries, ...

Jaggery
Jaggery: A Coarse Brown Sugar Made From The Juices Exuded By Various Palms In India Which Are Tapped As Our Sugar Maples Are, The Sap Being Collected In Vessels Attached To The Trees And Crystallized Into Sugar By Boiling. Jaggery When Fermented Becomes Palm Wine, And This Distilled Furnishes The ...

Labels
Labels. Every Year Improves The Grade Of The Labels On All Kinds Of Food And Other Grocery Items, And By Judicious Purchases Of Suitable Packages And Good Arrangement On The Shelves, The Appearance Of A Store Can Be Very Much Improved. Some Standard Goods Are Put Up Under Very Plain ...

Lemon
Lemon (color Page Opp. 332). The Lemon Is A Member Of The Citrus Family, Which Includes Oranges, Grape Fruit, Etc., And Is Probably Native To The North Of India. The Fruit Is Usually Oval, Wrinkled Or Furrowed, Of Various Shades Of Yellow And, Gen Erally, With Concave Oil-cysts In The ...

Lemon Extract
Lemon Extract. First Class Lemon Extract Consists Of Lemon Oil (which See) Dis Tilled In Stro.ng Alcohol, Or Lemon Oil And Lemon Peel Macerated In Alcohol, Filtered And Bottled. In The Former Case, The Extract Is Generally Colored By The Addition Of A Small Amount Of Yellow Coloring Removed From ...

Lemon Oil
Lemon Oil. Almost The Entire Supply Of The Oil Of The Lemon Rind Is Pro Duced In Sicily And Is Still Obtained By Hand Processes—the Small Factory Output, Which Is Darker In Appearance, Being Prin Cipally Employed To Heighten The Color Of The Hand-made Oil. The Two Most Widely Used ...

Lima Beans
Lima Beans: A Native American Product. See Sub-head In Article On Beans. Limburger Cheese. See Description In General Article On Cheese. The Best Qualities Come From Dominica And Montserrat, West Indies. Besides Mak Ing A Delicious Beverage, It Has Been For A Long Time Recognized As A Useful Medicinal Agent, ...

Limburger
Limburger : Was Originated In The Town Of Limburger, Belgium, But Little Is Im Ported Nowadays As That Of Domestic Manufacture Is Fully Equal In Quality To The Euro Pean And Is Made At A Cost Of Less Than Half That Of The Imported Article. Literally Thou Sands Of Tons ...

Lobster
Lobster: A Fish Of The Crab Species Which Is Rated By Many People As The Most Delicate And Delicious Of All Sea Food. In Addition To Its Consumption Fresh, Its Meat Is Canned In Immense Quantities, The Smallest Of The Catch Retained Being Gen Erally Used For The Purpose. Lobsters ...

Macaroni
Macaroni: Is Considered By The General Public As A Typical And Peculiarly Italian Food, And Italy Is Probably Entitled To The Credit For Her Early Appreciation Of Its Virtues Her Fidelity To It After Adoption, But History Credits Its Invention To The Chinese And Its European Introduction To The Germans. ...

Mackerel
Mackerel (see Color Page Opposite 504). The Common Mackerel, Considered By Many The Most Beautiful Of All Fish Which Find Their Way To Our Markets, Make Their Appearance. In Early Spring In Immense Shoals Or "schools" Off The Coasts Of Virginia And Maryland. Striking Northward, They Visit Successively Cape May, ...

Malt
Malt: Grain In Which Diastase Has Been Developed By Allowing It To Sprout. It Is Used In Large Quantities In The Manufacture Of Beer, Whisky, Malt Extract, Etc. The Grain Is First Steeped In Tubs Of Water For From Forty-eight To Seventy-two Hours Until It Starts To Germinate And Is ...

Mango
Mango (see Color Page) : A Fruit Be Lieved To Be A Native Of Southern Asia But Now Grown In Nearly All Sub-tropical And Tropical Countries And Found In Many Different Shapes, Sizes And Colors. The Kidney Shape Is The Form Most Generally Seen, But Some Are Nearly Round And ...

Maple Sugar
Maple Sugar And Maple Syrup: Are Made From The Sap Of Several Varieties Of The Maple Tree, Native To The Northern United States And Canada. The Three Chief Varieties Are The Hock Maple, Which Contains The Largest Percentage Of Sugar In The Sap; The Hard Maple And The Soft Maple, ...

Maraschino
Maraschino: A Famous Liqueur Which Takes Its Name From The Small Wild Black Marasca Cherry, Native To The Dalmatian Mountains, Austria, But Found Also In Italy, Greece And Parts Of Provence. The Fruit Is Very Sweet And Aromatic And The Kernel Resembles The Filbert In Flavor. There Are Numerous Commercial ...

Markets
Markets. The Public Market Or Fair Is One Of The Links Which Connect 20th Century Civilization With The Early History Of The Human Race. Its Origin Is Found In The First Concerted Attempt At Commerce, And Its Initial History Antedates The Oldest Records, Yet The Essential Principles Of The Primitive ...

Matches
Matches. Prior To The Beginning Of The Nineteenth Century, Matches Were Unknown. We Read In Virgil, Who Lived In The Augustan Period, That Two Centuries Before The Dawn Of The Christian Era, Fire Was Obtained By Rubbing Decayed Wood Together With A Roll Of Sulphur Between Two Stones. Several Centuries ...

Meat
Meat. In No One Thing Has The General Consumer Gained Over His Predecessors More Than In The Matter Of Fresh Meats. It Is Not So Many Years Ago That Residents In Small Towns And Country Districts Were Dependent For Fresh Meat On An Uncertain And Fluc Tuating Supply From The ...

Meat Extract
Meat Extract: A Term Which In Popular Usage Embraces Several Products Differ Ing Considerably In Character. That Best Known And Most Widely Used In The Prepara Tion Of "beef Tea" Is The Commercial Meat Or Beef Extract Obtained By Simple Boiling, Straining And Evaporation Without The Addition Of Other Ingredients. ...

Melon
Melon. The Principal Divisions Of The Melon Family Are Watermelons, Citron Melons (for Preserving) And Muskmelons Or "cantaloupes." The Watermelon, Which Is Supposed To Be Na Tive To Africa, Is Very Extensively Cultivated In All Warm Climates, In This Country Flourishing Best On The Warm Soils Of New Jersey And ...

Micro Organisms Or
Micro-organisms Or Microbes. Within The Scope Of This Subject Come A Large Number Of Minute Forms Of Vegetable Life Of The Fungi Order. Those Which Affect Human Foods And Digestion May Be Divided Into Three Classes Under The Titles Of Molds, Yeast And Bacteria. The Appearance Of Molds, Or Moldiness, ...

Milk
Milk. The Value Of Milk As An Article Of Food Is Clearly Shown By The Fact That It Is Sufficient To Support, And To Increase The Growth Of, The Young Of Every Species Of Mammalia. Examined By A Microscope, It Is Seen As A Transparent Fluid In Which Float Numbers ...

Mineral Waters
Mineral Waters: Are Waters Which Contain Unusually Large Quantities Of The Ordinary Mineral Ingredients, Or Contain Minerals Not Generally Found In Ordinary Water. They Are Roughly Divided Into "table" And "medicinal," But The Division Is Not Exact, As Many Of The Milder And More Delicate Types Are Used For Both ...

Mint
Mint: A General Name For A Large Number Of Perennial Plants, The Best Known Of Which Are Peppermint, Spearmint And Pennyroyal, Cultivated Chiefly For The Essential Oil Which Contains Their Aromatic And Medicinal Principles. About 90% Of The Supply Of Peppermint And Spearmint Oils Is Produced And Distilled In An ...

Miscellaneous Fancy Matches
Miscellaneous & Fancy Matches Include Wax Matches, "book" Matches And Such Varieties As "flamers," "blazers" And "vesuvians," Matches Which Cannot Be Extinguished By Wind Or Water, Etc. Wao Matches Are Splints Made Of Stearin And Copal Gum, Capped With Parlor Or Double Dip Composition. They Are Not Manufactured In The ...

Mushrooms
Mushrooms: Both In Their Own Varieties And By General Custom, In This Country Especially, Present A Curiously Interesting Study In Contradictions. By The Quantities Which Grow Wild, And By The Ease With Which They May Be Raised, They Would Seem To Be A Food Especially Useful To The Poor—instead, It ...

Mustard
Mustard. The Mustard Of General Use As A Condiment Consists Of The Crushed Seeds Of The Mustard Plant, Native To England But Capable Of Almost Universal Cultivation. The Mature Plant Ranges From Three To Six Feet In Height And Has Bright Yellow Flowers. There Are Two Chief Varieties— The White, ...

Mutton
Mutton: Is The Dressed Flesh Of The Sheep. It Is Best From Animals Three To Five Years Old. If Too Young, It Lacks Flavor ; If Too Old, It Is Tough. It Is Best Liked In The Spring, As It Is Generally More Juicy Then And Less Liable To Be ...

Nails
Nails. There Is No Date In History Fixing The First Use Of Nails, But It Is Of Curious Interest That Up To Only A Century Ago They Were Still Exclusively Hand-made, And Even As Late As 1850 It Was The General Custom In This Country For The Nail Maker With ...

Noodles
Noodles: Which Originated In Germany And Have Been In Popular Use There For Centuries, Resemble In General Character The Flat Forms Of Italian Paste Described In The Article On Macaroni, Their Title Being Indeed An American Spelling Of Nuclei, The German Word For "macaroni." They Consist Of Dough Of Wheat ...

Nutmeg
Nutmeg (see Illustration In Color Page Of Srams). The Nutmeg Is The Kernel Of The Fruit Of A Tropical Tree, Native To Asia, Africa And South America. The Pink Or Red Flesh Covering It, Is The Almost Equally Popular Spice Known As Mace (which See). The Whole Fruit, About As ...

Nuts
Nuts. Among The Most Popular Nuts Of General Use Are Almonds, Brazil Or Para Nuts, Chestnuts, Cocoanuts, Filberts, Hickory Nuts, Pecans, Pine Nuts Or Pignolias, Pistachio Nuts And Walnuts. With The Exception Of The Brazil Nut, Filbert And Pistachio, All Of These Are Now Grown In The United States, The ...

Oatmeal
Oatmeal. The Title "oatmeal," Though Properly Applicable Only To The Ground Meal Of The Grain, Is Commonly Applied Indifferently To Both Ground And "rolled" Oats. It Was Formerly Retailed Principally In Bulk, But To-day Package Goods Are Almost Exclusively Used. The Change Has Been Of Great Advantage To Both Merchant ...

Oils
Oils: Are Divided According To Their Sources As Animal, Vegetable And Mineral, Or For Various Specific Purposes, As Edible And Industrial, Cold Drawn And Otherwise, Fixed And Essential, Drying And Non-drying, Etc. Animals Oils May Be Divided Into Those From (1) Fish And Marine Mammals, As Menhaden And Whale Oil ...

Olive Oil
Olive Oil: Is Made From The Tree-ripened Fruit Of The Olive And Commercially Holds First Place Among Vegetable Oils. The Best Is That From The Small Fruit Extensively Cultivated In The Section Of, Southern France Formerly Known As Provence; The Lucca District, Italy, And California. The Highest Production Is Generally ...

Olives
Olives. Asia Minor Is Generally Credited With Being The Original Home Of The Olive, Which Is One Of The Oldest Of Known Fruits And Is Often Mentioned In Ancient Writings. The Tree Is An Evergreen With Abundant Foliage Of Very Small Greenish-gray Leaves. It Often Reaches A Great Height And ...

Onion
Onion: A Common Garden Vegetable, Of The Lily Family, Cultivated In Great Variety And Supplied To The Markets Nearly All The Year Round. It Is A Native Of Turkey In Asia, But It Has Been An Article Of Diet In Various Countries For A Great Many Centuries, And Is Now ...

Oranges
Oranges. The Ordinary Sweet Orange Appears To Have Been First Cultivated In The Fifteenth Century, But It Has Since Spread To Every Part Of The World Where The Climate Is Of Sub-tropical Warmth. The Tree Is An Evergreen Of Moderate Height With White Flowers Of Heavy, Sweet Fragrance And Considerable ...

Outing Supplies
Outing Supplies. When The Summer Approaches It Is Well For The Retailer To Bear In Mind That "outing Supplies" Afford Liberal Profits. If A Dealer Proves Himself Expert In Furnishing Needed Outfits, Packing In A Superior Manner, Etc., The Informa Tion Spreads Rapidly Among Customers, For A Judiciously Selected And ...

Oysters
Oysters. One Of The Most Democratic Of Food Luxuries Is The Oyster—you Find It In High Favor In The Most Expensive Establishments, Yet It Is Equally Abundant In "popu Lar Price" Restaurants, In Lunch Rooms And In The Cheapest Of Eating Stalls. In Stores, It Is Sold Both In And ...

Paprika
Paprika (which See) Is A Hungarian Red Pepper Made From The Flesh Only Of A Variety Of The Common Capsicum. The Vicinity Of Vineland, N. J., By Italian Farmers. The Winter Sale Of The Dried Fruit For Home Use Is An Industry Of Steadily Increas Ing Importance. In The Tropics ...

Partnership
Partnership. A Partnership Exists Wherever Two Or More Persons Combine Their Labor Or Capital, Or Both, To Secure The Profits To Be Produced Thereby. The Terms Upon Which This Is To Be Effected Are Regulated By Agreement Between The Parties And Are Generally, Although Not Necessarily, Expressed In A Written ...

Paw Paw
Paw-paw. See Matter Under Title Of Papaw. Resume And Retain A Fine Green Color, Hence Their Name Of Petits Pois Reverdis. French Peas Are Also Prepared In A Number Of Special Forms—the Most Important Of Which Is Petits Pois Au Beurre, "small, Or New, Peas In Butter." Ordinary Canned Peas ...

Peach
Peach: A Fruit Belonging To The Almond Family, Native To Persia But Now Culti Vated In All Temperate Climates. There Are A Great Many Varieties, Capable Of General Classification Under "white" And "yellow," Both Types Being Again Divisible Into "free Stones," With Flesh Pulling Free From The Stone, And "clingstones," ...

Peanuts
Peanuts. The Plant Which Produces The Fruit Generally Known As The Peanut In This Country, And As The Groundnut In Europe, Is One Of A Class Which Bury Their Pods In The Earth To Ripen, Instead Of Raising Them Into The Air (see Color Page Opposite 458). In Order To ...

Pears
Pears. The Pear Is Of All Temperate Fruits One Of The Most Susceptible To Improve Ment By Cultivation. There Are To-day More Than One Thousand Varieties, Ranging From The Tiny Seckel To The Marvelous Fruit Grown In The Island Of Jersey, One Of The Chan Nel Islands Between England And ...

Pepper
Pepper. The Black Or White Powdered Pepper Used As A Condiment Is The Ground Fruit Of The Piper Nigrum L., A Perennial Climbing Shrub, Native To The Forests Of Western And Southern India But For Centuries Cultivated Also On The Malay Peninsula And In Sumatra, Java, Ceylon And Siam, And ...

Perfumery
Perfumery. With The Exception Of A Very Limited Retail Sale Of The Absolute Oils, All Perfumes Consist Of Fragrant Essences In Alcoholic Solutions. The Most Expensive Are Generally Based On Essences Obtained Direct From The Blossoms Or Leaves Of Various Plants, But The Bulk Of Those Marketed Owe Their Fragrance ...

Persimmon
Persimmon: A Fruit Concerning Which There Is Much Confusion Of Information— And Misinformation—even In Works Otherwise Generally Reliable. This Is Probably Due To The Fact That There Are Two Distinct Fruits Bearing The Title—the North American And The Japanese—belonging To The Same Class And Both Now Grown In This Country, ...

Pickles
Pickles: A Term Popularly Applied To Numerous Kinds Of Vegetables And Fruits Pre Served In Vinegar, Mustard, Etc., And Variously Flavored. Among The Most Popular Items And Combinations Are "mixed-pickles," Gherkins, Piccalilli, Chow-chow, Chilies, Onions, "mango Pickles," Cauliflower, Cucumbers, Etc. Large Quantities Are Imported, But The Greater Part Of The ...

Pineapples
Pineapples. The Pineapple Takes Its Name From Its Resemblance To The Pine Cone, But The Title Is Misleading For It Grows On A Low, Spreading Plant. Its Native Home Is Tropical South America, But From There It Was Long Ago Carried To Every Tropical And Semi-tropical Country, And Is In ...

Pipes
Pipes. The Most Widely Used Pipes Are Meerschaum, Wood (such As Briar-root And Cherry) And Clay. Meerschaum Is A Silicate Of Magnesia, Obtained Chiefly From Alluvial Deposits In Asia Minor. It Is Also Occasionally Found On The Seashore, Washed Up By The Waves, With The Result That It Has Been ...

Pork
Pork. The Title "pork" Covers All The Flesh, Fresh Or Cured, Of Pigs Or Swine, But In Ordinary Use It Is Not Applied To The Flesh When Smoked, As Ham And Bacon. This Is Another Example Of The Curious Changes That Have Occurred In The English Language, For "bacon" Was ...

Port
Port: A Strong Fortified Red Wine, Produced Chiefly In The District Bordering On The Douro River, Portugal, And Named After Oporto, The City From Which It Was First, And Is Still Largely, Exported. It Is Of Two Main Types—vintage, From The Pressings Of Grapes Of A Single Season, Generally When ...

Potato
Potato. There Is Difference Of Opinion As To The Discoverer Of The Potato, But Authorities Generally Agree In Describing It As Native To South America. It Was Brought To Ireland By Sir John Hawkins In 1565; And To England By Sir Francis Drake In 1585 And By Sir Walter Raleigh ...

Poultry
Poultry. Within This Classification Come All Domesticated Birds Bred And Raised For Use As Human Food. The Most Common Types Are Chickens, Ducks, Turkeys, Geese, Pigeons And Guinea-fowls. Other Birds Occasionally Domesticated For The Same Pur Pose Are Peafowl (peacocks), Quail, Pheasants And Swans. Wild Duck, Wild Turkey, Etc., Come ...

Preservatives
Preservatives. The Proper Control Of The Methods Of Preparing And Marketing Food Products Is Indisputably Of Vital To The General Health. The Sta Tutes Applying To The Subject Are Not Yet Perfect In Either Detail Or Operation, But Recent Legislation Has Appreciably Raised The General Standard By Lessening The Use ...

Prickly Pear
Prickly Pear: A Title Popularly Applied To The Edible Fruit Of A Great Many Members Of The Opuntia Family Of Cactus, Now Represented By One Or More Kinds In Nearly Every Part Of The World. They May Be Generally Described As Fleshy Shrubs Or Trees, Often Of Great Size, With ...

Prunes
Prunes: Are Dried Plums Of Certain Cultivated Varieties. Until As Recently As 1s90 Almost The Entire Supply Was Imported From Europe, The Principal Sources Being France, Spain; Austria-hungary (including Bosnia, Servia, Etc.) And Germany, But To-day The General Market Is Fully Supplied By California And The Other Pacific States, And ...

Or Alligator Pear
Alligator Pear, Or Avocado: A Tropical Fruit, Native To Mexico And Northern South America But Now Widely Grown Also In The West Indies And In Florida And Other Southern States. The Tree Is A Fine Spreading Evergreen With Large Leaves Of Oval Shape And Bright Green Color, A Free Producer ...

Or Grape Fruit
Grape Fruit, Or Pomelo (color Page Opp. 282). The Spaniards Introduced The Pomelo Into Florida, But Recognition Of Its Value Was Deferred For A Long Time, Partly Because Its Peculiarity Of Flavor Was Not At First Acceptable To The American Palate, And Partly Because Of Lack Of Care In Its ...

Or Kosher
Kosher, Or Kasher, Meat: Is Primarily Meat From An Animal Or Bird That Has Been Killed By A Shohet, An Expert Meat Inspector, Under The Laws Of The Jewish Talmud. A Strictly Kosher Butcher Must Buy All His Stock Alive, The Animals Being Generally Killed In The Slaughtering House By ...

Or Liqueurs
Liqueurs, Or Cordials. The Numerous Beverages Classed Under This Heading Differ Widely In Character. Some Of Them Are Prepared Direct From Fruits By Fermentation And Distillation, But The Majority May Be Described In A General Way As Highly Sweetened Brandy Or Other Spirit, Flavored And Aromatized With One Or More ...

Or Mold
Mold, Or Mould: The Common Name For Several Varieties Of Minute, Thread-like Fungi Which Reproduce Themselves By Spores Or Seed Duk. They Grow On Almost Anything That Is Moist Or Damp And Secluded From Direct Light-rays, But They Flourish Best On Soft Articles, Such As Bread, Cheese, Fruits, Etc., Which ...

Or Pulque
Pulque, Or Palque Maguey: The Common Beverage Of The Central Tableland Of Mexico, Corresponding In Some Respects To Our Beer, But Generally Containing A Higher Alcoholic Percentage. It Is Obtained By The Fermentation Of The Sweet Liquid Known As "manso," Produced By The Maguey, A Plant Belonging To The Amaryllis ...

Or Stout
Stout, Or Porter, Or Brown Stout: A Fermented Beverage Made Of Malted Bar Ley Or Other Grain, Yeast, Hops And Water. The Name Stout Was First Applied To A Heavier Variety Of Porter, Extensively Brewed In London And Dublin, But Present Custom Tends To Calling All Porters, Except The Very ...

Or Zwiebach
Zwiebach, Or Zwieback: Is A Product Whose Name Describes Its Manufacture, The Word (in German) Signifying "twice Baked." That Put On The Market By Large Manufac Turers Is Made From A Special Dough, Raised By Yeast Like Ordinary Bread But Contain Ing More Milk Than Water And Frequently Including Also ...