ALIENS (sr(' also article in Vol. L).—The Aliens Act, 1905, and the regulations made thereunder, provide that an immigrant is not to be landed in Great Britain except at a port where there is an immigration officer. The function of this officer is to inspect the immigrants on board the ship, or on shore, if they are conditionally disembarked, and to grant leave to land or refuse the immigrant as undesirable. If the immigrant is refused, the master, owner, or agent of the ship, or the immigrant himself, can appeal to the Immigration Board of the port, and the Board can give leave to land or refuse the immigrant.
An undesirable immigrant is one who (a) cannot show that he has or can obtain the means to decently support himself and his dependants, if any ; (b) is lunatic, idiot, or diseased, and likely to become a charge on the rates, or otherwise be a detriment to the public ; (c) has been sentenced in a foreign country, with which we have an extradition treaty, for a non political crime m hich would conic under the Extradition Act of 1870; (d) has had an expulsion order made in his case.
Poutica/ nfitgccs, the immigrant proves that "he is seeking admission to this country solely to avoid prosecution or punishment on religious or political grounds, or for an offence of a political character, or persecution involving danger of imprisonment, or danger to life or limb on account of religious belief," then want of means, or the probability that such person will be a charge on the rates, is not to prevent leave to land being given. Also, where the immigrant has resided six months in Great Britain, and then left for a foreign country, and has been refused leave to land there, on his return after such refusal he will be allowed to land ; or if such immigrant was born in Great Britain, and his father was a British subject.
Expulsion Secretary of State can make an order for expul sion in the following cases : (a) if there is a certificate from any Court that the alien has been convicted of felony, misdemeanour, or any offence, includ ing imprisonment without the option of a fine, or under the Burgh Police (Scotland) Act, 1892, the Towns Improvement (Ireland) Act, 1854, and the Metropolitan Police Act, 1839, the Court i an recommend expulsion as an addition or in lieu of sentence; (b) if a certificate is given in a Court of Summary Jurisdiction, in proceedings within twelve months of the alien's last entry into the country, that he has, within three months before the 'certificate, been in such receipt of parochial relief as would disqualify for franchise, or has been found wandering without visible means of subsistence, or living under insanitary conditions due to overcrowding ; (e) if the alien has entered the country after the date of the Act, and has been sentenced for a non-political crime which is extraditable. If an expulsion order is
made, the Secretary of State can pay all expenses of sending the alien back ; but if the order is made within six months of the alien being disembarked, the master of the ship or of any ship belonging to the same owner must pay the expenses, and give a free passage back to the alien and his family.
Immigrant ships . —All ships bringing twenty or more (for sonic time this was fixed at twelve or more, but has been again raised to twenty) alien steerage passengers are " immigrant ships." passengers are exempted, but where there is only one class the ship conies within the Act. There is also an exception as to second-class passengers, where there is a proper system of inspection at the port of embarkation, or security is given by the ship or shipping company, or only transmigrants are carried. Then an order of exemption from inspection is granted. This applies to alien second-class passengers who pay the excess of fare on the ship, or alien third-class rail and second-class on the ship, but alien third-class rail, and deck or steerage on the ship, still remain subject to inspection. Ports of entry.—'The ports of entry are Cardiff; Dover, Folkestone, Grangemouth, Grimsby, Harwich, Hull, Leith, Liverpool, London (including Queenborough), Newhaven, Southampton, and the Tyne ports (comprising Newcastle, North Shields, and South Shields, which are to be deemed one port). Other ports may be added from time to time. Alien %%lio have actual contracts to join a ship in British waters are exempt, but not if they are only seeking for employment. Distressed seamen sent home by a British Consul are also exempt.