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Spirits
Spirits, Spirits Are Dealt With Elsewhere, Particularly Under The Heading Of Distiller. Methylated Spirits Are Spirits Mixed With Some Substance Or Combination Of Substances (to The Satisfaction Of The Commissioners Of Inland Revenue) In Order To Render The Mixture Unfit For Use As A Beverage. Their Manufacture And Salf Is ...

Standard Of
Standard Of Is Usual In Most Works Of Reference To Set Out A Table Of The Standard Of Value And Moneys Of Account Of The Principal Countries Of The World Showing, Particularly, The Usual Values In English Money Of The Principal Foreign Coins. These Values, Which In Many Instances Are ...

Stationery In
Stationery In The Growth Of The Advertising Spirit, Increasing Attention Is Devoted To Stationery By Nearly All Business Houses. In The Old Days Anything Would Do For Business Letters And Very Little Care Was Given To Their Appearance. The Retail Trader Would Carry On His Correspondence On Notepaper Advertising Some ...

Stenographic Force
Stenographic Force : How To Organise Organising A Stenographic Force, One Of The First Questions To Be Considered Is The Staff Is To Be Composed Of Male Or Female Stenographers. If I T. Is A Small Staff, And The Work Is Of A Highly Specialised Nature, It Is Probable That ...

Stock
Stock In A Company, Like Shares, Is A Share In The Capital, But, Unlike Shares, It Is Subdivisible Into Fractional Parts, And So Held By Its Proprietors Who Are Registered As The Stockholders In The Company. Stock Is A Chose In Action, But A Holder Cannot Sue For The Capital ...

Stock Letters
Stock-letters. See Mail Order Business. Stook-taking. See Hotel Organisation. Store Management.—to Act Successfully In The Position Of Manager To One Of The Huge Undertakings Of Many Departments Which Are Now Known As Stores Requires A Good Deal Of All-round Knowledge. It Is Much Easier To Control A Shop Of Smaller ...

Stock And Stores
Stock And Stores Accounts May Be Defined As Records Of The Quantities Of Finished Goods Bought Or Manufactured, And Ready Fct Gale Without Undergoing Any Fuither Process. Stores Accounts Are The Records Of Raw Material, Or Partly Manufactured Goods Used In The Manu Facture Of The Finished Goods Shown In ...

Store Staff Selection And
Store Staff Selection And Training.— Amongst The Many Problems Of The Up-to-date Dry-goods Merchant One That Un Doubtedly Ranks In First Importaiwe Is The Selection And Upkeep Of An Efficient Staff, And, Of Course, In Establishing A Store Of The Size Of Selfridge's, This Problem Was An Acute One From ...

Subrogation
Subrogation Is A Doctrine Applicable Only To Contracts Of Marine And Fire Insurance. It Has No Relation To Life Assurance, Or To Insurance Against Accidents. The Principle Of The Doctrine Is That On Payment Of A Loss The Insurers Are Entitled To Enforce All The Remedies, Whether In Contract Or ...

Substituted
Substituted Service.—a Person Against Whom A Writ Has Been Issued Can Now Obtain No Practical Advantage By Endeavouring To Evade Service. The Tactics Of Such Have Been Amply Met By Rules Of Court Which Provide For Substituted Service, Or Service Other Than Personal. A Plaintiff' Who Cannot Effect Service Upon ...

Succession
Succession Is One Of The Death Duties. It Is Payable By A Person (termed The " Successor ") Who Succeeds, Upon The Death Of Another, To Real Property Or To The Income Thereof. The Rate Varies According To The Relationship Of The Successor To The Deceased ; It May Be ...

Suggestion In Selling
Suggestion In Selling. Successful Salesmanship Depends Upon The Personality Of The Salesman. There Are Two Ways Of Selling Goods : One Is The Personal Way When The Customer Visits The Shop, The Other Is The Ad Vertising Way In Which The Seller Gets His Orders Through The Post. The Broad ...

Summary
Summary Judgment.--itpon A Debtor Being Served With A Writ In The High Court At The Suit Of His Creditor, He Generally Proceeds To Enter An Appearance In The Same Manner As If He Had A Good Defence To The Action On Its Merits. His Object As A Rule Is Merely ...

Summary Matrimonial
Summary Matrimonial Wife May Now Obtain A Judicial Separation From Her Husband Without Going To The High Court There For. Power To Make An Order For Such A Separation Was Conferred Upon Magistrates' Courts By The Summary Jurisdiction (married Women) Act, 1895. This Is Made When—(a) The Husband Has Been ...

Sunday
Sunday Is A Dies Non So Far As Regards Civil Legal Proceedings, The Making And Completion Of Contracts, And The Meetings Of Public Bodies. No Processes Of Law, Such As A Writ Of Summons, Can Be Served On A Sunday ; Nor Can Any One Be Arrested In A Civil ...

Surveyor
Surveyor Is A Person Who Professes Skill In Measuring And Valuing Land And Building Work. Surveyors Of Standing Are Now Associated In A Society Called The Surveyors' Institute. They Either Practise Their Profession To The Exclusion Of Any Other Occupation, Or In Connection With That Of An Architect On The ...

Surveyor
Surveyor : How To Become A.--a Surveyor In The Widest Sense Of The Term Is One Who Is Skilled In The Art Of Measuring And Delineating The Surface Of The Earth, Of Managing And Developing Estates, Of Determining The Value Of All Descriptions Of Laud And House Property, And Of ...

Suspense
Suspense The Name Implies, This Account Is Used For The Purpose Of Collecting Together In A Convenient Form Items Which For Various Reasons Are Unable To Be Allocated To The Proper Account To Which They Relate. Some Of The Circumstances Under Which A Suspense Account May Come Into Being May ...

Sweating
Sweating. See Appendix Ii. Table The First Schedule To The Companies Act, 1908, There Is Set Out A Table Of Model Regulations Of A Company Incorporated Under That Act. It Deals With The Shares, Capital, Meetings, Members, Directors, Divi Dends, Accounts And Audit Of A Company, And, In The Case ...

Taxation
Taxation Of Costs.—the Process By Which An Official Of The Court, Known As A Taxing Master, Settles The Amount Of The Bill Of Costs Of A Solicitor. Taxations May Ta.ke Place As A Matter Of Course In Respect Of Costs In An Action. And Where A Client Is Dissatisfied With ...

Technical Men
Technical Men : How To Secure Technical Schools All Over The World Are Turning Out Thousands Of Men Annually, It Is Still True That The Business World Can Use Almost Twice As Many Technical Graduates As Are Now Being Supplied. The Technical Man Is The Autocrat Of The Business World. ...

Telegraphs
Telegraphs. — A Written Or Printed Message Or Communication Delivered At A Post-office For The Purpose Of Being Transmitted As A Postal Telegraph, And Every Transcript Thereof, Is Deemed To Be A Post Letter Within The Meaning Of The Post-office Offences Act, 1837; But An Officer Of The Post-office Is ...

Tenants In Common
Tenants In Common Are Such As Hold An Undivided Property, With A Unity Of Possession, By Several And Distinct Titles. Tenants In Common Should Be Distinguished From Joint Tenants, For They Properly Take Their Common Ownership By Distinct Parts, And Have No Entirety Of Interest ; And Therefore There Is ...

Tenement
Tenement Factory.—this Expression Is Defined By The Factory Act, 1901, As "a Factory Where Mechanical Power Is Supplied To Different Parts Of The Same Building Occupied By Different Persons For The Purpose Of Any Manufacturing Process Or Handicraft, In Such Manner That Those Parts Constitute In Law Separate Factories ; ...

Territorial Force
Territorial Force. See Appendix Ii. Chief Statutory Authority Relating To Theatres And Stage Plays Is The Theatre Act, 1843, The Term " Theatre " Meaning A House Or Other Place Of Public Resort For The Performance Of Stage Plays. Theatres Can Lawfully Exist As Such Only When Duly Licensed, Though ...

The Business Encyclopiedia 87
The Business Encyclopiedia 87 Exceeds £50 And Does Not Exceed £100 . . . . £0 5 0 „ £100 Ft Pp £200 . . . 0 10 0 „ £200 Pp .; £500 . . . . 0 15 '0 „ £500 Pp Ft £750 . . . . ...

Tickler System
Tickler System. See Mail Order Business. Time Checking.—directly An Employer Has More Than Twenty Bands The Problem Of Keeping Check Of Their Time Becomes A Matter Of Importance In The Economy Of His Business, And It May Be Said That The Larger The Number Of Employees On His Wages List, ...

Time Saving In Office
- Time-saving In Office Detail—in The Daily Routine Of A Business Office The Incoming And Outgoing Mails Have Considerable Place : A Condition Which Is Becoming Inure Pronounced As Time Goes On. The Old-fashioned Methods Of Dealing With These Mails Are No Longer Good Enough For The Up-to-date Business Man ...

Title Of Proceedings
(title Of Proceedings.) Of , A Creditor In The Above Matter For The Sum Of £ , Hereby Request The Official Receiver For The Said Estate To Record My Vote Acceptance Of The Proposal As Set Forth In The Report Against Of The Official Receiver Hereto Annexed, And Against Anyamendment ...

Trade
Trade Has Always Been The Subject Of The Most Careful Regard By The English Law, This Regard Being Evidenced As Well By The Actions Of The Earlier Sovereigns And The Activities Of The Mediwval Gilds And Municipalities As By The Legislation Effected In The Later Period Of More Representative Government. ...

Trade Boards
Trade Boards. See Article Sweating In Appendix Ii. Trade-mark Is Defined By The Trade-marks Act, 1905, As Meaning A Mark Used Or Proposed To Be Used Upon Or In Connection With Goods For The Purpose Of Indicating That They Are The Goods Of The Pro Prietor Of Such Trade-mark By ...

Traffic
Traffic Returnel—these Are Statements Furnished Weekly Through The Medium Of A Postcard To The Press And The Stock Exchange By Each Railway Company. They Show The Receipts Of The Company's Goods And Passenger Traffic During The Past Week, But They Do Not Show The Expenditure. Their Object Is To Indicate ...

Travelling
Travelling Scholarships In The British Islands Are Mostly " Close" Scholarships Confined To The Students Of Particular Universities Or Of Other Institutions. Some Of The County Councils Offer Travelling Scholarships, But No General List Is Published, And Each Council Acts Independently Of The Others. Infor Mation As To These Can ...

Treasury
Treasury The Government Desires To Borrow Money For Temporary Purposes, It Issues Notes Known As Treasury Bills. An Issue Is Advertised In The London Gazette. A Treasury Bill Is In A Form Prescribed By Statute, Payable At A Specified Date Not More Than Twelve Months From The Date Of The ...

Trial Balances
Trial Balances. See Monthly Statement. Turnover : How To Retain And Increase Traders Are Aware That It Is Not Always An Easy Matter To Retain A Customer Even After He Has Once Been Secured. Through No Apparent Fault Or Neglect On Your Part His Trade With You May Begin To ...

Trinity
Trinity The Year 1515 A Society, Which Had Undoubtedly Existed For Many Years Previously, Was Incorporated At Deptford, London, By Henry Viii. For The Promotion Of Commerce And Navigation, By Licensing And Regulating Pilots, And Ordering And Erecting Beacons, Lighthouses, Buoys, &c. This Society Was Afterwards Referred To, In Letters ...

Trustee In
Trustee In Trustee In Bankruptcy Is Some Person (generally A Practising Public Accountant) Who Is Appointed. To Repre Sent The Creditors Of A Bankrupt, And To Get In And Realise The Bankrupt's Assets And Distribute Them Among The Creditors. He Acts Under The Super Vision Of The Bankruptcy Court Of ...

Typewriting Machines
Typewriting Machines : How To Select Them.—to The Average Business Man One Typewriting Machine Is Very Much Like To, If Not Entirely Identical With, Another, Aad Such A Man Usually Leaves The Selection Of The Particular Make To The Operator, Or Buys From The Salesman With The Most Plausible Arguments ...

Uberrima
Uberrima The Negotiation Of Certain Contracts It Is Essential, In Order That The Contracts Should Be Valid When Concluded, That Each Of The Parties Thereto Should Disclose To The Other Full Information As To Matters Which Are Not Known To The Other, And Which Should Be Known By Him In ...

Undue
Undue Preference.—a Railway Or Canal Company Is Not Entitled To Make Any Undue Preference To Persons For Whom It Carries With Regard To The Tolls It Charges And The Services It Renders. Such Companies Have A General Right, However, To Alter Or Vary Tolls From Time To Time Either Upon ...

Unhealthy And Dangerous Trades
Unhealthy And Dangerous Trades Are Thc Subject Of Certain Important Provisions In The Factory Act, 1901, Particularly In Sections 79-86, Whereunder The Home Secretary Makes Regulations For The Safety Of The Workers In Cases Where He Is " Satisfied That Any Manufacture, Machinery, Plant, Process Or Description Of Manual Labour ...

Voucher
Voucher Is The Name Given To Various Methods Of Dealing With Purchase Invoices, And Payments In Connection Therewith, In America. The English Method May Briefly Be Said To Be The Pasting Of The Invoices Into A Guard Book, Or The Filing Of The Same Alphabetically Or Numerically, And The Transfer ...

Wage Womans Clerical Work
Woman's Clerical Work, Wage, And Treatment.—in Recent Years The Question Of Male Versus Female Employment In Clerical Work Has Become One Of Considerable Importance. This Being So, It Is Opportune To Discuss The Relative Value Of The Two Sexes Considered From The Standpoint Of Salary Paid And General Efficiency Displayed. ...

Warehouseman
Warehouseman Is A Person Whose Trade It Is To Keep Buildings And Premises In Which Goods May Be Stored. He Is Liable To The Owner Of The Goods As A Bailee, But Not To The Same Extent As Is A Common Carrier. In Case They Are Injured The Owner Can ...

Watches
Watches, If Made Of Gold Or Silver Can Only Be Dealt In By Traders Who Hold An Excise Licence. In The Application Of The Merchandise Marks Act, 1888, To Watches And Watch-cases, The Term " Watch " Is Defined As Mean Ing "all That Portion Of A Watch Which Is ...

Weights And Measures
Weights And Measures Are The Subject Of A Series Of Legislative Enactments Commencing With An Act Of 1878, Known As The Weights And Measures Act, Which Consolidated The Law On The Subject, And, Except As To The Metric System Which Was Effectively Established By One Of The Later Acts, Settled ...

Wholesale Or Trade
Wholesale Or Trade Most Usual Media For Advertising To And For A Particular Trade Are The Trade Paper; Circulars, Booklets, Catalogues, &c. Such Advertising May Be Described As The Application Through The Medium Of Printer's Ink Of The Same Principles As Those Adopted By The Actual Travelling Salesman. A General ...

Window
Window Tioketing.—a Side Issue Of Selling Which Is Worth Serious Consideration Is The Value Of The Window Ticket. Its Use Has Been Demon Strated Over And Over Again, And An Intelligent Use Of This Means Of Selling Goods Has Only Been Made By A Few Traders. The Word "window Ticket" ...

Window Display
Window Display (wholesale).—with The Increasing Interest Of The Retail Trader In The Value Of His Window Display There Has Been Awakened An Interest By The Wholesaler In The Possibilities Of Successful Aggressive Work In This Direction. The Retail Trader Who Is Making Window Displays Of An Up-to-date Character, Finds In ...

Window Display
Window Display (wholesale).—with The Increasing Interest Of The Retail Trader In The Value Of His Window Display There Has Been Awakened An Interest By The Wholesaler In The Possibilities Of Successful Aggressive Work In This Direction. The Retail Trader Who Is Making Window Displays Of An Up-to-date Character, Finds In ...

Work And Wages
Work And Wages In Factories.—this Is The Subject Of A Number Of Various Statutory Provisions, Examples Of Which Are Those Relating To Mines, Hosiery Manufacturers, And The Truck System. In This Place Reference Will Be Made To Only Certain Sections Of The Factory And Workshop Act, 1901, Which Require Particulars ...

Workmens Compensation
Workmen's Compensation (and See Article In Vol. V) Where Any Question Arises As To The Liability To Pay Compensation Or As To Whether The Injured Perion Was A Workman, To Whom The Workmen's Compensation Act Applies, These Questions, If Not -settled By Agreement, Must Be Settled By Arbitration. The Rules ...

The Provisions With Regard
Twelve Months, The Provisions With Regard To Discount Shall Not Apply," And By Section 6 (8), The Estate Duty " Due Upon An Account Of Real Property May . . . Be Paid By Eight Equal Yearly Instalments, Or Sixteen Half-yearly Instalments Ll Estimation Of Value Of Succession, 4-c.—by The ...