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Chamber's Encyclopedia, Volume 4

Croton
Cro'ton, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Euphorbiacce, Having Male And Female Flowers Generally On The Same Plant; The Male Flowers With Five Petals; The Female Flowers With Three Styles, Which Are Either Forked Or Divided Into Many Branches; The Capsules 3-celled, With One Seed In Each Cell. ...

Croup
Croup, A Severe And Fatal Disease Of Infants, Known From A Remote Period, But First Scientifically Described By Dr. Francis Home In 1765, As A Suffocative Affection Of The Breathing, Depending Upon The Formation Of A False Membrane Or Fibrinous Deposit On The Mucous Membrane Of The Windpipe Or Larynx ...

Crow
Crow, Corms, A Genus Of Birds, The Type Of The Family Corrid (q.v.). The Largest Species Of This Genus Is The Raven (q.v.). The Rook (q.v.) Also Belongs To It. Besides These And The Jackdaw (q.v.), There Are Two Other Species Found In Britain, The Common Carrion C. (c. Corone), ...

Crown
Crown (lat. Corona, We). Cmcn, And Gael. Cruinn, Round). Crowns Were Originally Garlands Of Leaves; And In This Form They Have Probably Been Used As An Ornament For The Bead By Almost Every People. They Were Much Used By Both The Classical Nations On Joyous And On Solemn Occasions. Among ...

Crusades
Crusades Is The Name Given To The Religious Wars Carried On During The Middle Ages Between The Christian Natioas Of The West And The Mohammedans. The First Of These Was Undertaken Simply To Vindicate The Right Of Christian Pilgrims To Visit The Holy Sep Ulchre. On The Conquest Of Palestine, ...

Crustaceans
Crustaceans, Crustacea, A Class Of Articulated Animals, Agreeing With Insects, Arachnida, And Myriapoda In Having Articulated Limbs; But Differing From Them In Important Respects, And Particularly From All Of Them In The Adaptation Of The Organs Of Respiration To An Aquatic Life, Even Those Of Them Which Live On Land ...

Cryptography
Cryptography, The Art Of Secret Writing, More Commonly Called The Art Of Writing In Cipher (from Arabic Sift, Void), Has Been In Use From An Early Date In Correspondence Between Diplomatists And Others Engaged In Important Affairs Requiring Secrecy. In Modern Times, It Has Been The Subject Of Learned Care ...

Cryptography
Cryptography (ante), Secret Writing, Or Writing To Understand Which The Recipient Must Know The Key. Such Modes Of Communication Have Been In Use From The Earliest Times, The Laccdmmonians, According To Plutarch, Had A Method Which Has Been Called The Scytale, From The Staff Employed In Constructing And Deciphering The ...

Crystallography
Crystallography. A Crystal Is A Piece Of Matter That, By The Action Of Molecu Lar Forces, Has Assumed A Definite Geometrical Form Of Some Kind, With Plane Faces. There Is A Great Variety Of Crystalline Forms, Each Forth Being Characteristic Of One Or More Substances; And C. Is The Science ...

Csoma
Csoma Deros, Alexander, A Hungarian Scholar And Traveler, Whose Name In His Own Language Is Written Kiir5se Csoma Sandor, Was B. About 1790 At Koros In Tran Sylvania. And Educated First At The College Of Nagy-enyed, And Subsequently At Gottin Gen, Where He Devoted Himself With Great Zeal To The ...

Cu3imin6 Cumyn
Cumyn, Cu3imin6, Or Co31yn, A Family Which Rose To Great Power And Eminence In England And Scotland. It Took Its Name From The Town Of Comines, Near Lille, On The Frontier Between France And Belgium. While One Branch Remained There, And, In 1445, Gave Birth, In Its Old Château, To ...

Cuba
Cuba, The Largest Of The Antilles, And Most Important Transmarine Possession Of Spain, Stretches In N. Lat. From 19' 50' To 23° 9', And In W. Long. From 74° 8' To 84° 58'. It Has A Length Of Rather More Than 750 M., And An Average Width Of 50 M., ...

Cuckoo
Cuckoo, Cuculus, A Genus Of Birds Of The Order Of Climbers (q.v.); The Type Of A Family, Eueulidee, Which Contains A Large Number Of Species, Mostly Confined To The Warmer Regions Of The Globe, Although Some Of Them Are Summer Visitants Of Cold Climates. The Beak Is Compressed And Slightly ...

Culross
Culross', A Parliamentary And Municipal Burgh And Seaport In A Detached Part Of Perthshire, On The N. Shore Of The Firth Of Forth, 6 M. W. Of Dunfermline, And 22 N.n.w. Of Edinburgh. It Is A Place Of Great Antiquity. As Early As The 6th C., It Was The Seat ...

Cultivated
Cultivated Plants Which, Either For Their Usefulness Or Their Beauty,'have Been To Some Considerable Extent, And Not Merely As Objects Of Curiosity, Cultivated By Man—belong To Natural Orders Widely Different From Each Other, And Scat Tered Throughout Almost All Parts Of The Vegetable Kingdom.' The Prevalence Of Particular Qualities In ...

Cultivation
Cultivation. The Term Includes All Operations For Preparing The Soil For Those Crops Which Man Specially Selects For His Use. The Spade, The Hoe, And The Plow, Have Been The Primary Implements Of C. Among All Nations As Far Back As Their Civilization Can Lie Traced. All These Effect Much ...

Cumberland
Cumberland, The North-westmost Co. Of England, Bounded N. By Scotland And The Solway Firth, W. By The Irish Sea, A. By Lancashire, E. By Westmoreland, Durham, And Northumberland. It Is Eleventh In Size Of The English Counties; Greatest Length, 74 M.; Greatest Average Breadth, 22; 75 M. Of Coast: Area, ...

Cumberland Presbyterians
Cumberland Presbyterians Had Their Origin In A Revival Of Religion Which Commenced About The Opening Of The Present Century In The South-western Part Of Kentucky, Under The Preaching Of Rev. James Mcgready, A Presbyterian Of Scotch-irish Descent, Who Had Been Educated At Jefferson College In Western Pennsylvania. The Revival, At ...

Cuneiform
Cuneiform, Cuneatic, Wedge-shaped, Arrow-headed (fr. Tae-ci-dou, Ger. Keilrormig), Are Terms Iola Certain Form Of Writing, Of Which The Component Parts May Be Said To Resemble Eitrfer A Wedge, The Barb Of An Arrow, Or A Nail. It Was Used For Monumental Records, And Was Either Hewn Or Carved In Rocks ...

Cupping
Cupping Is The Application Of Cups, From Which The Air Has Been Exhausted, To The Skin,.-with The Object Of Causing Congestion Or Excessive Fullness Of The Cutaneous Blood Vessels; And If It Should Be Thought Desirable To Withdraw Some Blood, The Skin May Be Cut Or Scarified, And The Exhausted ...

Curious Clocks
Clocks, Curious. Among Remarkable Clocks, One Of The Best Known Is That In The Strasbourg Cathedral. Another, Illustrating The Elaborateness To Which Clock-work Is Sometimes Carried, Was Placed On Exhibition In New York In The Summer Of 1880. It Is The Work Of Felix Meier, Who Spent More Than 10 ...

Curistopher Columbus
Columbus, Curistopher (the Latinized Form Of The Italian Colombo, And The Spanish Co/on), The Great Navigator Who Added A New Hemisphere To Our Globe, Is Supposed To Have Been Born At Or Near Genoa, In The Year 1436, Or As Others Say, 1446. Though Vir Tually The Greatest Man Of ...

Curling
Curling, A Sport On The Ice Common In Scotland, Where It Is Played By All Classes Of People Iu Winter. Frozen-over Lakes And Rivers Answer For The Purpose. But Under The Auspices Of C. Clubs, Artificial Shallow Ponds Are Maintained For The Sake Of This Popular National Sport, And These ...

Currant
Currant, A Name Originally Belonging To A Small Kind Of Grape (see Currants), And Transferred, In Consequence Of The Similar Size Of The Fruit, To Many Species Of The Genus Ribes, The Most Important And Almost The Only Genus Of The Natural Order Grossu Larfacetc. The Species Known As Currants ...

Currency
Currency Means Originally The Capacity Of Being Current, Or, As Johnson Defines It, "the Power Of Passing From Hand To Hand." It Is Applied In Practice To The Thing That Is So Current, And Generally To Whatever, By Being Current Among Any Nation Or Class Of Persons, Serves As The ...

Curvature
Curvature. The C. Of A Plane Curve At A Point Is Its Tendency To Depart From A Tangent To The Curve At That Point. In The Circle, This Tendency Is The Same Throughout, For The Curve Is Perfectly Symmetrical Round Its Center; In Other Words, The C. Of A Circle ...

Curve
Curve Means, In Common Language, A Crooked Line That Departs Gradually From The Straight Direction; In Mathematics, However, It Is Usually Restricted To Lines That Follow Some Law In Their Change Of Direction. Thus, The Law Of The Circle Is, That All Points Of It Are Equally Distant From A ...

Customs Duties
Customs Duties, The Portion Of The Revenue Of The United Kingdom Derived From A Tax On Imports. The Origin Of The Term Is Connected With The Long Conflict Between The Crown And Parliament As To The Right Of Taxation. To Meet The Claims Made By The House Of Commons Of ...

Cutch
Cutch, A Protected Principality Under The Presidency Of Bombay, Stretches Along The Gulf Of Its Own Name And The Indian Ocean Between Guzerat And Sinde. It Extends In N. Lat. From 22° 45 To 24° 40', And In E. Long. From 68° 26' To 71° 45', Containing, In Something Of ...

Cutlery
Cutlery, The General Name For All Kinds Of Cutting Instruments, Such As Knives, Forks, Scissors, Razors, Etc. The Workman Who Makes These Is Called A Cutler; The Swordmaker, A Sword-cutler; But The Manufacturer Of Workmen's Tools Is Called A "tool Maker," Or A "steel To Ymaker ," Not A Cutler. ...

Cuttings
Cuttings Are Branches Or Portions Of Branches Of Trees Or Shrubs, Employed To Produce New Plants, By The Insertion Of The Lower End Into The Earth. By Care, And In The Most Favorable Circumstances, Almost Any Tree Or Shrub May Be Propagated By C., But Sonic Only With Great Difficulty, ...

Cuzco
Cuz'co, The Name Of A City, A Province, And A Department In Peru. 1. C., The City, Was Originally The Capital Of The Incas (in The Language Of The Incas, Says Garcilasso, C. Signifies " Navel") And The Center Of An Empire, Which, Besides The Territory Of The Exist Ing ...

Cy Rus
Cy Rus, The Founder Of The Persian Monarchy, Commonly Called C. Tim Elder, Was, According To Herodotus, The Son Of Cambyses. A Persian Noble, And Of Mandane, Daugh Ter Of Astyages, The 3iedo-persian King. His Birth Was A Source Of Alarm To His Grand Father Astyages, Who Had Previously Had ...

Cyperits
Cype'rits, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Cyperoceer, Distinguished By Her Maphrodite Flowers And Compound Spikelets Of Numerous Two-rowed Glumes, Including No Bristles Or Scales It Contains A Great Number Of Species, Chiefly Tropical, And Gradually Decreasing In Number Colder Parts Of The Globe. Only Two Are Found ...

Cypress
Cypress, Cupressus, A Genus Of Plants Of The Order Coniferce, The Species Of Which Are Evergreen Trees Or Shrubs, With Small Generally Appressed And Hnbricated Leaves, And With Almost Globular Cones, The Scales Of Which Bear Numerous Hard Seeds. The Best Known Species Is The Commox C. (c Sempervirens), A ...

Cyprus
Cyprus (anc. Gr. Kupros, Mod. Gr. Kibris, Fr. Chipre, Ital. Cipro), An Island Situated S. Of Asia Minor, In That Portion Of The Mediterranean Called The Levant. C. Was Anciently Divided Into Many Small Kingdoms. It Was Originally Possessed By The Plicenicians, From Whom It Passed To The Greeks, And ...

Cyprus
Cyprus (ante), One Of The Largest Islands In The Mediterranean, In The Extreme N.e. Of That Sea, Nearly Equidistant From Asia Minor On The N. And Syria On The E.; 46 M. From The Former, And Go In. From The Latter; 145 M. Long And Go Wide At The Extreme ...

Cyrenaica
Cyrena'ica, The Name Of The District Whose Capital Was Cyrene (q.v.). At One Period, It Nominally Stretched From Carthage To Egypt, And Extended Inland As Far A. As The Oasis Of Fezzan; But A Great Portion Of This Territory Was Occupied By The Subject Libyan Tribes, And Not By The ...

Cyril
Cyril, Sarst, Bishop Of Alexandria, Was One Of The Most Energetic But Least Amiable Of The Church Fathers. The Date Of His Birth Is Not Known. He Was Educated By The Fanatical Monks Of Nitria, With Whom He Lived For Five Years, And Who Probably Inspired Him With That Fiery, ...

Cysticercus
Cysticer'cus (gr. Bladder-tail), According To Many Naturalists, A Genus Of Cystic Worms (q.v.), Characterized By A Dilated Cyst With A Single Head, Which Has Four Suckers And A Circlet Of Hooks. This Genus Has, However, Latterly Been Displaced From The System Of Nature By The Discovery That The Forms Referred ...

Czar
Czar, More Properly Zar, Is A Title Of The Russian Emperor. The Word Is Derived From The Old Slavonic Language, And Signifies Much The Same As Ger. Kaiser, Lat. Cwar, To Which It Probably Owes Its Origin; Although Some Etymologists Identify It With The Termination Of The Names Of The ...

Dacca
Dacca, A City Of Bengal Proper, Stands About 190 M. To The N.e, Of Calcutta, In Lat. 23' 43' N., And Long. 90° 25' East. It Is Situated On The Thalia Gunga, A Considerable Auxiliary Of The Dulasseree, Which Is Itself At Once A Mingled Offset Of The Brahmaputra And ...

Dacia
Da'cia, The Land Of The Daci Or Getm. Its Geographical Limits Were Very Indefinite Until Its Conquest By The Romans. After That Period, It Comprised The Various Coun Tries Now Known As Eastern Hungary, Transylvania, Bukowina, Moldavia West Of The Pruth, Wallachia. And The Banat Of Temesviir. The Getm Came ...

Daguerre Otype Process
Daguerre Otype Process, The Name Given To The Original Photographic Process, As Introduced By Its Inventor, M. Daguerre, In 1839. Notwithstanding That It Has Now Become So Unpopular, On Account Of The Very Circumstance Which Gives Such Perfection To The Result—viz., The Polish Of The Plate—it Is A Process Which ...

Dahlia
Dahlia, A Genus Of Large Perennial Herbaceous Plants Of The Natural Order Composita, Sub Order Corymbiferce, Natives Of Mexico. All The Varieties In Cultivation In Our Flower Gardens, Of Which Not Fewer Than 2,000 Have Been Carefully Enumerated, Are Derived Tram Two Species, D. Variabilis And D. Coccinea, And Chiefly ...

Dahomey
Dahomey, An Independent State Of Guinea, Western Africa, Extending Along The Coast From Fort Badagry On The E., To The River Volta, Which Separates It From Ashantee On The West. Its Limits Have Not Been Precisely Defined, But It Is Usually Regarded As Extending Back To The Kong Mountains. It ...

Dairy
Dairy, All That Concerns Milk And Its Management On A Farm; Or The Place Or House Where The Milk Is Kept, Cheese Made, Etc. (the Old Word Dey, The Milkmaid Who Pre Sided Over The Deyry Or Dairy, Is Probably Allied To Dug, A Teat, And To Lat. Due-, To ...

Dakota
Dakota. (ante) (meaning "leagued" Or "allied," With Reference To Confederate Sioux Tribes), A Territority Of The United States, Organized 1861, Bounded E. By Minne Sota And Iowa. S. By Nebraska, W. By Wyoming And Montana, And N. By British America. Dakota Lies Between 43° And 49'n. And About 97' To ...

Daliioitsie
Daliioit'sie, Marquis Of, James Andrew Broun-ramsay, Gov.gen. Of India, Third Son Of The Ninth Earl Of D., Was B. April 22, 1812, At Dalhousie Castle, Midlothian. Lie Was Educated At Harrow, And Graduated At Christ Church, Oxford. In 1832. By The Death Of His Only Remaining Brother, He Succeeded To ...

Dalmatia
Dalma'tia, A Narrow Strip Of Territory, Extending Along The Adriatic Sea, And Bounded On The N. By Croatia, On The E. By Bosnia, Herzegovina, And .montenegro. Lat. 42' 15' To 44' 54' N., Long. 14' 30' To 19° E. It Forms, With Its Adjacent Islands, The Most Southern Crownland Of ...

Dalrymple
Dalrymple, Jonn, Second Son Of The First Earl Of Stair, And Grandson Of Viscount Stair, Was Born At Edinburgh, July 20, 1673. He Had The Misfortune, While Young, To Kill His Elder Brother, By The Accidental Discharge Of A Pistol. This Unhappy Circumstance Induced The Parents, Both For Their Own ...

Damages
Damages, In Law, Are The Pecuniary Recompense Claimed On Account Of Suffering An Injury Through The Act Of Another. The Peculiar Constitution Of The English Common Law Courts, Which, Till Lately, Prevented Them In Most Cases From Giving Any Other Remedy Than By Way Of D., Rendered The Questions Relating ...

Daman
Daman, Hyrax, A Genus Of Quadrupeds, Highly Interesting As A Connecting Link Between The Rodentia And The Pachydermata. On Account Of Their Small Size, Their Thick Fur, And Their General Appearance, They Were Always Ranked Among The Former, Till Envier Pointed Out Their Essential Agreement, In Dentition And Anatomical Characters, ...

Damascus
Damascus (arabic., Dimislikesh-sluint), A City Of Syria, The Largest In Asiatic Turkey, Occupies A Situation Of Unrivaled Beauty Ou A Luxuriant Plain At The Eastern Base Of The Anti-libanus, And 53 M. C.s.e. Of Beyrout, Which Forms Its Port, Lat. 33' 27' N., Long. 36° 23' .east. The Appearance Of ...

Damask
Damask, The Name Given To All Textile Fabrics In Which Figures Of Flowers, Fruits, Or Others Not Of Geometrical Regularity, Are Woven. The Word Is Supposed To Be Derived From The City Of Damascus Having Been An Early Seat Of These Manufactures. From The Intricacy Of The Early Process, The ...

Damuggo
Damuggo', A Large And Populous T. Of Upper Guinea, Africa, Situated On The Left Bank Of The Niger, In Lat. 7° N., Long. 7° 50' Cast. The Houses, Built Of Mud, And Sup Ported By Wooden Props, Are Circular In Shape. The Town Is Dirty, And Has It Miserable Appearance. ...

Danaide
Da'naide, A Hydraulic Machine Made Of Two Cylinders One Within The Other, Turn Ing Easily On A Vertical Axis, And Having A Small Space Between Them. The Smallest One Is Closed At The Bottom, And The Other Has A Hole In The Middle Of Its Base. The Bottoms Of The ...

Dance Or Death
Dance Or Death (lat. Chorea .maehaberorum,fr. La Dance _macabre), A Name Given To A Certain Class Of Allegorical Representations, Illustrative Of The Universal Power Of Death, And Dating From The 14th Century. When The Introduction Of Christianity First Banished The Ancient Germanic Conception Of A Future State, A New Description ...

Dancing
Dancing May Be Defined In A General Way As The Expression Of Inward Feelings By Means Of Rhythmical Movements Of The Body, Especially Of The Lower Limbs, Usually Accompanied By Music. Dancing May Almost Be Said To Be As Old As The World, And Prevails In Rude As Well As ...

Dancing Mania
Dancing Mania, A Form Of Epidemic Disorder Allied To Hysteria (q.v.), And Evi Dently The Result Of Imitative Emotions Acting Upon Susceptible Subjects, Under The Influ Ence Of A Craving For Sympathy Or Notoriety. There Is Little Doubt That Imposture Entered To A Considerable Extent Into All The Epidemic Forms ...

Danish Language And Literature
Danish Language And Literature. The Danish Language, Which, With Slight Modifications, Is Common To The Three Scandinavian Kingdoms, Is A Branch Of The Ancient Gothic, And Has Been Retained Almost In Its Original Form In Iceland. The Oldest Memo Rials Of The Danish Are Codes Of Laws, As The Skaanske ...

Danish Language And Literature_2
Danish Language And Literature. The Original Language Of Denmark Was The Pure Scandinavian Or Icelandic, But It Has Been Transformed By Foreign Admix Ture, Chiefly German, Until The Original Features Are Nearly Lost. The Changes, Begin Ning In The 12th C., Culminated At The Period Of The Reformation, And The ...

Dante
Dan'te (properly, Diirante) Alighie'ri, One Of The Greatest Poets Of All Time, And Incomparably The Greatest Among The Italians, Was B. In Florence In 1265. The Out Ward Circumstances And Fortunes Of His Life Are Involved For The Most Part In Great Uncertainty. His Family Was, By His Own Account, ...

Danube
Danube (ger. Donau), The Second Of European Rivers, Inferior Only To The Volga, Has Its Origin In The 13rege And Brigach, Two Mountain-streams Rising In' The Eastern Part Of The Black Forest, In Baden, At An Elevation Of 2,850 Ft. Above Sea-level In Lat. 48' 6' N., And In Long. ...

Danzig
Danzig (polish Gdansk), An Important Seaport Of Prussia, And Fortress Of The First Rank, In The Province Of Prussia, Is Situated On The Left Bank Of The Western Branch Of The Vistula, About 3i In. From Its Mouth In The Baltic. D. Is An Ancient, Place, Laving Been In Existence ...

Daouria
Daou'ria, A Country Of Asia, Partly In The Russian Government Of Irkutsk, And Partly Belonging To The Chinese Territory Of Mantehooria. Its Limits Are Not Exactly Defined. The Daourian Mountains, Offsets Of The Yablonot Mountains, Traverse It From N.e. To S.w., And Separate It From The Region Of Lake Baikal. ...

Daphiie
Daphiie, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Thymeleacece, Having A 4-cleft, Funnel Shaped Perianth, The Throtit Of Which Is Destitute Of Scales, Eight Stamens, And A One Seeded Succulent Fruit. All The Species Are Shrubs Or Small Trees, Sonic Having Decidu Ous, And Some Having, Evergreen Leaves, All ...

Dare Dace
Dace, Dare, Or Dart, (leueicus Rulgari.1), A Fresh-water Fish Of The Family Cyprinidcf (q.v.), And Of The Same Genus With The Roach, Ide, Chub, Bleak, Minnow, Etc. It Chiefly Inhabits The Deep And Clear Water Of Quiet Streams. It Is Found In Italy, France, Germany, Etc., And In Some Of ...

Darien
Darien, The Name Of A Gulf On The Northern Coast Of South America, And Of The Isthmus Connecting The Grand Northern And Southern Divisions Of The New World.-1. Gulf Of D., The Most Southerly Portion Of The Caribbean Sea, About 70 M. In Length From N. To S.,and 25 From ...

Darien Scheme
Darien Scheme, Tire, One Of The Most Disastrous Speculations On Record, And One Which Caused An Unprecedented Excitement In Seotland From 1695—in Which Year The Litrien Company Was Established By Act Of The Scottish Parliament, -sanctioned By Royal Authority—till 1701, When The Last Of The Disappointed Adventurers Returned Borne. The ...

Darling
Darling, A Name Derived From A Governor Of New South Wales, And Applied To A District, A Mountain-range, And A River In Australia.-1. The Darling Downs District Includes An Extensive Tract Near The Dividing Range In The S. Of Queensland. The Dis Trict Has An Area Of About 6,000 Sq.m., ...

Dartmoor
Dartmoor, A Granitic Table-land In The South-western Part Of The County Of Devon, Remarkable For Its Wild And Rugged Scenery, Its Towering Rock-capped Hills, The Numer-' Ous Streams That Have Their Source In Its Boggy Soil, And The Many Cyclopean Relics Of The Aboriginal Inhabitants That Are Scattered Over Its ...

Dartmouth College
Dartmouth College, At Hanover, N. H., Had Its Origin In Moor's Charity School, An Institution For The Education Of Indian Children, Organized At Lebanon, Conn., Iu 1754, By Eleazar Wheelock, D.d. Dartmouth College Received Its Charter In 1769 From George Iii., At The Hands Of John Wentworth, Royal Governor Of ...

Darwinism
Darwinism, A Term Often Too Widely Applied, And Made To Cover Every Subject Relating To The Origin And Development Of Species. Of The Writers, Mainly Iu England, Who Have Gathered The Vast Array Of Facts Taken As A Basis For The Doctrine Of Evolution (see Species), Charles Darwin (see Darwin, ...

Dashrov
Dashrov, Princess Ekaterina R0manova, Daughter Of Count Vorontsov, Was B. 1744, And From Her Earliest Youth Received A Careful Training, Especially In Classics. She Was An Intimate Friend Of The Empress Catharine Ii., And One Of The Heads Of The Con Spiracy Formed Against Peter Iii.. The Success Of Which ...

Datary
Da'tary, An Assistant To The Pope, Sometimes Called Chancellor. To Relieve The Pope Of Unimportant Business He Has Power To Grant Certain Requests, In Which He Is Assisted By A Pro And A Sub Datary. Date (lat. Datum, Given), The Precise Time At Which A Document Was Written, Or An ...

Date Palm
Date Palm (phenix), A Genus Of Palms, The Most Important Species Of Which Is The Common Date Palm, The Palm Tree Of Scripture (ph. Dactylifera), A Native Of The North Ern Half Of Africa, The S.w. Of Asia, And Some Parts Of India, And Which Has Also Been Brought Into ...

Date Plum
Date Plum, Diospyros, A Genus Of Plants Of The Natural Order Ebenacerc, Consisting Of Deciduous Trees, Whose Fruit Is A Globose Berry, Natives Of Warm Or Temperate Climates. The Black Heartwood Of Some Species Is Ebony (q.v.), And The Hard Timber Of Others Is Known As Inoxw000. Some Are Valued ...

Davenant
D'avenant, Sir William, An English Poet And Playwright, Was B. In The Year 1605 Or 1606 At Oxford. Where His Father Kept The Crown Inn, A House At Which Shakespeare Was In The Habit Of Stopping When On His Journeys Between London And Stratford. D., While Still A Child, Had ...

David
David (heb. " Beloved"), King Of Israel, The 9th And Youngest Son Of Jesse, Belonged To The Tribe Of Judah, And Was Probably Educated In One Of The Schools Of The Prophets. He First Publicly Signalized Himself By Slaying Goliath Of Gath, A Gigantic Philistine, Who Had " Defied The ...

David I
David I. (often Called St. Davm), King Of Scotland, Was The Youngest Of The Six Sons Of King Malcolm Ceanmohr, By His Second Wife, The Anglo-saxon Princess, St. Margaret (q.v.). He Was B. About The Year 1080. During The Fierce Struggle For The Scottish Crown, Which Foilowed The Death Of ...

Davies
Davies, Sir Jolly., A Poet And Statesman Of Some Reputation, Was The Son Of A Legal Practitioner In Wiltshire, And Was B. In 1570. At The Age Of 15, He Was Sent To Queen's College, Oxford, Where Five Years After, He Took His Degree Of B.a., Having Spent Two Of ...

Davout
Davout (not Davocst, As Commonly Written), Louis Nicolas, A French Marshal, Was B. 10th May, 1770, At Annoux, In The Old Province Of Burgundy; Was Edneated Along With Bonaparte At The Military School Of Brienne; And In 1785, Became Sub-lieut. In A Cavalry Regiment. During The Revolutionary Wars, He Rose ...

Davy
Davy, Sir Humm O Inv, Ne Of The Greatest Chemists Of His Own Or Of Any Age, Was B. On The 17th Dec., 1778, At Penzance, In Cornwall, Where His Father Was A Carver In Wood. At The School Of Truro, Where He Was Educated Until He Was 15, He ...

Day Of The Week
Day Of The Week. To Find The Day Of The Week For Any Date, Past Or Future, There Are Several Methods, But The Simplest And Most Easily Understood Is As Follows: First, There Is A "constant" For The Style—for New Style It Is 6; For Old Style, 4. (in English ...