NEW JERSEY, a State in the North Atlantic Division of the North American Union; bounded by New York, Pennsyl vania, Delaware, the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay; one of the original 13 States; counties, 21; capital, Trenton; area, 8,224 square miles; pop. (1890) 1,444,933; (1900) 1,883,669; (1910) 2,537,167; (1920) 3,155,900.
Topography.—New Jersey is divided into two distinct geographical divisions, the N. portion being undulating and hilly, and the S. a low sandy plain. The N. half of the State is crossed by three parallel mountain ranges running in a S. W. direction. The Blue Ridge or Kit tatinny, and the Highland ranges, are part of the Appalachian chain and the third or Orange Mountains belong to a series of low ridges traced from Massa chusetts across Connecticut, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The Blue Ridge crosses the Delaware river at the Dela ware Water Gap, where its altitude is 1,486 to 1,625 feet. The greatest alti tude in the the State is Hiah Point, near the New York State line, 1,804 feet. Be tween the Blue Ridge and Highland ranges is the Kittatinny valley, 10 to 13 miles in width, and noted foi its agri cultural advantages. The Highland Range is in reality a deeply dissected plateau or tableland, its semi-detached portions being known as mountains, _ among which the highest are Hamburg Mountain, 1,488 feet, Wawayanda Moun tain, 1,450 feet, Schooley's, Musconet cong, and Green Pond Mountains. The Orange Mountains are three parallel ridges of trap rock known as the First and Second Mountains, and Long Hill, separated by narrow valleys, underlaid by sandstone. A ridge of trap extends along the New Jersey shore of the Hud son river, known as the Palisades, and is world renowned for its scenic beauty. The Navesink Highlands, a group of sandy hills S. of Sandy Hook, and other detached hills to the S. W. rise to a height of nearly 400 feet. The entire S. portion of the State is an undulating plain gradually decreasing in altitude to ward the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware river. The W. portion of the State is bounded and drained by the Delaware river. The Hudson flows along the E. boundary for 30 miles but receives no drainage. The principal rivers of the State are the Passaic which, fed by the Pompton and Rockaway, empties into Newark Bay; and the Raritan, flowing into Raritan Bay. There are numerous small rivers, and creeks flowing into the Atlantic or into small bays. Among
these may be mentioned the Navesink, Shrewsbury, Tom's, Manasquan, Great and Little Egg Harbor rivers. The At lantic coast has numerous tidal bays, and the N. part of the State abounds in mountains, lakes and ponds. Among the latter are Greenwood Lake, Budd's Lake, Lake Hopatcong, and Green Pond.
Geology.—Bands of geological forma tion cross the State in a N. E. and S. W. direction. With the exception of the coal measures, all the geologic ages are represented. The Azoic, represented by granite, crystalline limestone, and gneiss, is interlaced with the Palaeozoic sand stone, slates, shales, and magnesium limestone in the N. W. The Triassic sandstone, broken by trap and basalt ridges, occupies a belt N. W. of a line from Jersey City to Trenton. This red sandstone deposit is said to have a thick ness of 14,000 feet. The Cretaceous belt is just E. of the sandstone, and includes sands, marls, clays, and mixtures of the same. The S. part of the State is of drift deposits of loam, clay, sand and gravel.
Mineralogy.—For its size New Jersey is one of the richest mineral producing States in the Union. The Azoic and Paleozoic formations in the N. W. sup ply a large amount of magnetic iron, magnetic ore being practically the only kind now mined, though deposits of hematite and amanite are known. Cop per ores are worked in Somerset county, and the Schuyler mine at Arlington was the first copper mine worked in the United States. The zinc mines in Sus sex county are among the richest in the world. Lead, plumbago, manganese, and nickel are also found. Sand for glass making, shell marls for fertilizers, lime for mortar and for fertilizing, porcelain, potters' and kaolin clays are among the more useful geographical resources. In building and paving stones New Jersey stands well, the famous Jersey sand stone is largely used for building pur poses, and the gneiss-granite, limestone, blue-stone, slate and trap are all of great commercial value. Shipments of iron ore in 1918 amounted to 375,238 long tons, valued at $1,945,651. In the pro duction of clay products New Jersey ranks third among the States, being ex ceeded only by Ohio and Pennsylvania. There is also an important production of zinc. Clay products were valued at $22,529,232, The total value of the min eral products of the State in that year amounted to $57,710,181.