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Collier's New Encyclopedia, Volume 6

New Mexico
New Mexico, A State In The West Ern Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Colorado, Oklahoma, Texas, Mexico, And Arizona; Organized As A Territory, Sept. 9, 1850; Number Of Counties, 29; Capital, Santa Fe; Area, 122,580 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 153, 593; (1900) 195,310; (1910) 327,396; (1920) 360,350. ...

New Orleans
New Orleans, A City And Port Of Entry Of Louisiana; On Both Sides Of The Mississippi River, 110 Miles Above The Delta, And On The Illinois Central, Yazoo And Mississippi Valley, Gulf Coast Lines, Louisiana Railway And Navigation Co., Texas And Pacific, Louisville And Nash Ville, Louisiana Southern, New Orleans ...

New South Wales
New South Wales, The Oldest Of The Colonies Of Great Britain In Aus Tralia, And Since Jan. 1, 1901, A State In The Australian Commonwealth. At One Time It Comprised The E. Half Of Aus Tralia, But Is Now Bounded On The N. By Queensland, On The S. By Victoria, ...

New York
New York, A State In The North Atlantic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Ontario, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario, Long Island Sound, And The Atlantic Ocean; One Of The Original 13 States; Number Of Counties, 62; Capital, Albany; Area, 47,620 Square Miles; ...

New York Barge Canal
New York Barge Canal, A Gigantic Engineering Construction, Which Connects The Great Lakes With The Atlan Tic Ocean. The Term Canal Is Employed In A More Extended Sense Than Usual, As It Includes Not Only The Artificially Cre Ated Waterway, But The Intervening Lakes And Rivers Which Are Utilized As ...

New Zealand
New Zealand, A Dominion Of The British Empire, Consisting Of A Group Of Islands In The South Pacific Ocean, Two Large Islands, Called North And South (or Middle) Islands, And A Third Of Com Paratively Insignificant Size, Stewart Is Land; Length Of The Group, N. To S., About 1,000 Miles; ...

Newark
Newark, The Largest City Of New Jersey, And The County-seat Of Essex Co. It Is On Newark Bay And Extends To The Mouth Of The Passaic River. It Is On The Pennsylvania, The Lehigh Valley, Cen Tral Of New Jersey, Lackawanna, And The Erie Railroads. The City Has An Area ...

Newfoundland
Newfoundland, An Island And British Colony Of North America; In The Atlantic Ocean At The Mouth Of The Gulf Of St. Lawrence, And Separated From Labrador On The N. By The Straits Of Belle Isle. The Island Is 370 Miles In Length, 290 In Breadth, And About 1,000 In Circumference; ...

Newspaper
Newspaper, A Printed Paper Pub Lished At Intervals Of Hours, Days, Or Weeks, Containing Intelligence Of Past, Current, Or Coming Events; And At The Option Of The Conductors Presenting Also Expressions Of Opinion By Editorial And Other Contributors And The Business An Nouncements Of Advertisers. The Proto Types Of The ...

Niagara Falls
Niagara Falls. The Niagara River, Which Flows From Lake Erie N. Into Lake Ontario, Is About 36 Miles In Length; Its Descent From The Level Of One Lake To That Of The Other Is About 334 Feet. At The Foot Of Grand Island, Which Reaches Within 11/2 Miles Of The ...

Nicaragua
Nicaragua, A Republic Of Central America; Reaching From The Caribbean Sea To The Pacific, Between Costa Rica On The S. And Honduras On The N., The E. (caribbean) Coast Measuring 290 Miles And The W. Coast 185 Miles; Area, 49,200 Square Miles; Pop. About 420,000, Including 40,000 Uncivilized Indians. Topography.—the ...

Nicholas Ii
Nicholas Ii., Emperor Of Russia, Son Of Alexander Iii.; Born In St. Pe Tersburg, Russia, May 18, 1868. His Mother Was The Princess Dagmar, A Daughter Of King Christian Ix. Of Den Mark. The Course Of His Studies Was By His Father's Wish, Directed Chiefly Tc Modern History And Languages, ...

Nickel Steel
Nickel Steel. Iron Has A Strong Affinity For Nickel, And Alloys With It In All Proportions Very Readily. The Fol Lowing Is The Average Composition Of Nickel Steel As Made In The United States: Carbon . 0.24-0.2s Per Cent. Sulphur 0.02-0.03 " " Manganese " Phosphorus 0.01-0.03 " " Nickel ...

Nihilism
Nihilism, In Ordinary Language, Nothingness; The State Or Condition Of Be Ing Nothing, Nihility. In History, A Term Used To Designate The Russian Socialist Movement, Which Began About 1870, And May Be Divided Into Two Distinct Periods: (1) "the Going Among The Peasants." A Number Of Young Men And Young ...

Nile
Nile, Called By The Egyptians Hapi Mu, And By The Hebrews Sihor, The River Of N. E. Africa, Formed By The Union Of The Bahr-el-abiad And The Bahr-el-azrek. Captains Speke And Grant Discovered That The First Of These, The True Nile, Flowed Out Of The Lake Victoria Nyanza. The Second, ...

Nitric Acid
Nitric Acid, The Most Important Of The Five Compounds Formed By Oxygen With Nitrogen; Symbol Hno3. When Pure It Is A Colorless Liquid, Very Strong And Disagreeable To The Smell, And So Acrid That It Cannot Be Safely Tasted Without Being Much Diluted. It Is Known In The Arts As ...

Nobility
Nobility, That Distinction Of Rank In Civil Society Which Raises A Man Above The Condition Of The Mass Of The People. The Ancient Romans Were Divided Into Nobiles And Ignobiles, A Distinction At First Corresponding To That Of Patricians And Plebeians. A New Nobility Afterward Sprang Out Of The Plebeian ...

North Carolina
North Carolina, A State In The South Atlantic Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Virginia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, And The Atlantic Ocean; One Of The Original 13 States; Number Of Counties, 100; Capital, Raleigh; Area, 48,500 Square Miles; Pop. (1900) 1,893,810; (1910) 2,206,287; (1920) 2,559,123. Topography.—the E. ...

North Dakota
North Dakota, A State In The North Central Division Of The North American Union; Bounded By Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Minnesota, South Da Kota, And Montana; Admitted To The Union, Nov. 2, 1889; Counties, 53; Cap Ital, Bismarck; Area, 70,195 Square Miles; Pop. (1890) 182,719; (1900) 319, 146; (1910) 577,056; (1920) 646,872. ...

Northmen
Northmen, A Name Applied To The Ancient Inhabitants Of Scandinavia, Or Norway, Sweden, And Denmark, But More Generally Restricted To Those Sea Rovers Called Danes By The Saxons, Who Sailed On Piratical Expeditions To All Parts Of The European Seas, Made Their First Ap Pearance On The Coast Of England ...

Norway
Norway (norwegian, Norge), A Country In The N. Of Europe, Bounded On The N. E. By Russian Lapland, And E. By Sweden, And Washed On All Other Sides By The Sea; By The Arctic Ocean On The N., The Atlantic And The North Sea On The N. W. And W., ...

Notation
Notation, A Marking. In Architec Ture It Is A System Of Signs, Marks, Or Characters Appended To Figures, When Used To Denote Dimensions On Drawings, As ' For Feet, " For Inches, "' For Parts; As 10' 6" = 10 Feet, 6 Inches. In Arith Metic It Is A System ...

Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia, A Province Of The Do Minion Of Canada, Comprising The Peninsula Of Nova Scotia Proper And The Island Of Cape Breton. It Is Bounded N. And N. W. By The Bay Of Fundy, A Small Section Of New Brunswick, The Strait Of Northumberland, And The Gulf Of St. ...

Novel
Novel, A Prose Narrative Of Fictitious Events Connected By A Plot, And Involv Ing Portraitures Of Character And De Scriptions Of Scenery. Is Generally Ap Plied To Narratives Of Everyday Life And Manners; While The Romance Deals With What Is Ideal, Marvelous, Mysterious, Or Supernatural. Prose Fiction Written For Entertainment ...

Nubia
Nubia, A Large Region Of Africa, Formerly A Portion Of Ethiopia, And Ex Tending On Both Sides Of The Nile From Egypt To Abyssinia; Touching The Red Sea On The E. And The Desert On The W. Nubia Proper, Or Lower Nubia, Extends From Assuan On The Egyptian Frontier To ...

Nuremberg
Nuremberg, A City In The Bavarian Province Of Middle Franconia, Germany; On The Pegnitz River; 95 Miles N. By W. Of Munich. It Is The Quaintest And Most Interesting Town Of Germany, On Account Of The Wealth Of Its Medieval Architec Ture. The Burg Or Royal Palace, Built (1024-1158) By ...

Nystagmtjs
Nystagmtjs, An Involuntary Move Ment Of The Eyeball Due To Clonic Spasm Of The Muscles Of The Globe. It Usually Affects Both Eyes. The Movement Is Usually Horizontal, I. E., From Side To Side, But It May Be Rotary. 0, O, The 15th Letter, And The 4th Vowel Of The ...

Oases
Oases, Fertile Spots In A Desert, Due To The Presence Of Wells Or Of Under Ground Water Supplies. The Best Known And Most Historically Famous Are Those Of The Libyan Desert And The Sahara; They Occur Also In The Deserts Of Arabia And Persia, And In The Gobi. The French ...

Obelisk
Obelisk, In Printing And Writing, In Its Latin Sense, A Sign Like A Sharp Pointed Spear ( !) With Which Doubtful Passages Were Marked, Or References Made To Notes In The Margin, Or At The Foot Of A Page; A Dagger. In Architecture, A Quadrangular, Slender Stone Shaft, With A ...

Observatory
Observatory, A Building Devoted Co The Observation Of Astronomical, Mag Netic, Meteorological, Or Other Natural Phenomena. The Astronomical Observa Tory Is The One Of Most General Interest. Astronomical Observation Began At An Early Date In China; The Pyramids In Egypt Seem In Some Way To Have Been Associated With Stellar ...

Ocean
Ocean, The Sea, Using That Term In Its Widest Sense. Properly Speaking, There Is But One Ocean Or Sea, All The Salt Water On The Globe, With A Few Trifling Excep Tions Like The Caspian, The Sea Of Aral, And The Dead Sea, Being More Or Less In Complete Communication ...

Percy Mackaye
Mackaye, Percy, Dramatist And Poet; Born In 1875 In New York, Graduated From Harvard In 1897, And Became A Student At Leipsic, After Travel Ing In Europe, He Taught Privately In New York And From 1904 Has Been En Gaged In Dramatic Work. His Works Include "the Canterbury Pilgrims," A ...

Queen Of Scots Mary
Mary, Queen Of Scots (mary Stuart), Only Daughter Of James V. Of Scotland And Mary Of Guise; Born In Linlithgow, Scotland, Dec 8, 1542. James, Dying Of Chagrin In A Few Days After Her Birth, The Parliament Made James, Earl Of Arran—head Of The Great House Of Hamilton, And Heir-presumptive ...

Sir Isaac Newton
Newton, Sir Isaac, An English Philosopher; Born In Woolsthorpe, Lin Colnshire, England, Dec. 25, 1642 (old Style). In 1654 He Was Sent To Grantham School, And At The Age Of 18 Removed To Trinity College, Cambridge. After Going Through Euclid's Elements, He Pro Ceeded To The Study Of Descartes' Geom ...

Sir John Alexan Der
Macdonald, Sir John Alexan Der, A Canadian Statesman; Born In Glasgow, Scotland, Jan. 11, 1815. He Was Educated At Kingston, Canada; Ad Mitted To The Bar In 1835; Entered Parlia Ment For Kingston In 1844; And Became Successively A Member Of The Executive Council, Receiver-general, Commissioner Of Crown Lands, And ...

Sir John Lubbock
Lubbock, Sir John, An English Archeologist, Naturalist And Politician; Born In London, England, April 30, 1834. He Joined His Father's Banking Business In 1848; Became A Partner In 1856; Entered Parliament In 1870 As Member For Maidstone; After 1880 Represented London University. He Was A Recognized Authority On Financial And ...

Sir Thomas Erskine May
May, Sir Thomas Erskine, Baron Farnborough. An English Historian; Born In London, England, Feb. 8, 1815. He Was Educated At Bedford School, Became Assistant Librarian Of The House Of Commons In 1831. He Was Called To The Bar In 1838, And Shortly After His Retirement From Office In 1886 Was ...

Sir Thomas Malory
Malory, Sir Thomas, Knight, Was Born Probably About 1400, The Son Of Sir John Malory Of Newbold Revell. As A Young Man He Served In France Under The Renowned Richard Beauchamp, Earl Of Warwick, Known As The "father Of Courtesy." In 1445 He Was Member Of Parliament For Warwickshire, And ...

Stephen Bleecker Luce
Luce, Stephen Bleecker, An American Naval Officer; Born In Albany, N. Y., March 25, 1827; Served On The Pacific Coast In The Mexican War; Was Promoted Commander In 1866; Captain In 1872; Commodore In 1881; And Rear Admiral In 1885; Was Retired The Same Year. He Was Naval Editor Of ...

Thomas Babing Ton Macaulay
Macaulay, Thomas Babing Ton, An English Historian; Born In Rothley Temple. Leicestershire, England, Oct. 25, 1800. He Composed A Compen Dium Of Universal History Before He Was Eight Years Old; Went To School At Shel Ford And Entered Cambridge In 1818. In 1826 He Was Called To The Bar, But ...

Thomas Garrigue Masaryk
Masaryk, Thomas Garrigue, First President Of The Czecho-slovak Re Public, And Chief Of The Nationalist Move. Ment Which Led To The Establishment Of The Republic. He Was Born In Goding, Moravia, 1850, Received Only An Elemen Tary Education, And Was Then Apprenticed To A Blacksmith. Through Individual Ef Fort He ...

Thomas Moore
Moore, Thomas, An Irish Poet; Born In Dublin, Ireland, May 28, 1779. He Was The Son Of A Catholic Grocer. From The School Where Sheridan Had Been Educated, He Passed In 1794 To Trin Ity College, And Thence, After Taking His B. A., In 1799, To The Middle Temple, London. ...

United States Military Organization
Military Organization, United States. During The World Were To Tend Sick Pilgrims At Jerusalem And On Their Way To The Holy City. The Order Of The Templars Soon Followed; Their Purpose Was To Protect Pilgrims And Guard The Temple At Jerusalem. The Orders Of Alcantara, Of Calatrava, And Of Santiago ...

United States Navy
Navy, 'united States. In The Last Months Of 1775, The Continental Congress Passed A Number Of Acts Creat Ing A "marine Committee" And Provid Ing For The Building And Manning Of A Fleet Of 17 Small Vessels Carrying From 10 To 32 Guns Each. At The Head Of The List ...

Viscount John Morley
Morley, Viscount John, An Eng Lish Author; Born In Blackburn, Lanca Shire, England, Dec. 24, 1838. He Was Graduated At Oxford In 1859; Called To The Bar In 1873; Was For Some Time Editor Of The "literary Gazette," "fortnightly Review" (1867-1882), "pall Mall Gazette" (1880-1883), And "macmillan's Maga Zine" (1883-1885). ...

William Charles Macready
Macready, William Charles (-fedi), An English Tragedian; Born In London, England, March 3, 1793. His Father, The Lessee And Manager Of Several Provincial Theaters, Sent Him To Rugby And Oxford To Be Educated, But His Cir Cumstances Became Embarrassed, And The Youth Had To Join His Father's Company At Birmingham ...

William Lyon Mackenzie
Mackenzie, William Lyon, A Canadian Journalist; Born In Dundee, Scotland, March 12, 1795; Emigrated To Canada In 1820; And In 1824 Established The "colonial Advocate," First At Queens Town, Then At Toronto. There His Denun Ciations Of The Officials Resulted In The Partial Destruction Of His Printing Office In 1826. ...

Or Industrial Occupational
Occupational, Or Industrial, Diseases Arising Out Of Poisons, Irritants, And Similar Causes Due To Specific Conditions Of Labor. These Maladies Have Been Classified By W. G. Thompson In His "occupational Diseases," Into Diseases Due To Irritant Substances; Those Arising From Defective Surroundings, And Special Occupational Diseases. The Diversity Of Diseases ...

Or Latter Day Saints
Mormons, Or Latter Day Saints, A Religious Sect In North Amer Ica, Founded By Joseph Smith, Jr., At Fayette, Seneca Co., N. Y., In 1830. In 1823, Claiming That He Was Led By The Inspiration Of An Angel Who Had Ap Peared To Him, He Claimed To Have Discov Ered ...

Or Malek Al Adel Nur
Nur Ed-din Mahmud, Or Malek Al-adel, Emir And Sultan Of Syria; Born In Damascus, Turkey, In 1117. His Father, Omad Ed-din Zenghi, Originally Governor Of Mosul And Diarbekir Under The Seljuk Sultans, Had Established His Independence, And Extended His Author Ity Over Northern Syria. Nur Ed-din Mahmud Succeeded Him In ...

Or Morocco Morocco
Morocco, Or Morocco, Known To The Natives As Maghreb-el-aksa, "the Farthest West," Is A Former Empire Or Sultanate Which, Though At One Time Comprising A Portion Of Algeria In One Direction, And Exercising In The Other A Modified Jurisdiction As Far As Timbuktu, Is Now Confined To That Part Of ...

Or Mould Mold
Mold, Or Mould, In Botany, The Name Given To Any Thread-like Fungal, Whether Belonging To The Hyphomycetes Or The Physomycetes, Which Are Found On Bread, Ink, Gum, Etc. Brown, Blue, Or Green Mold Is Penicillium Glaucum; Another Green Mold Is Mucor Mucedo. In Geology: Vegetable Soil Consisting Of The Surface ...

Or Nervous System Nerve
Nerve, Or Nervous System. A Nerve Is One Of The Fibers Which Pro Ceed From The Brain And Spinal Cord, Or From The Central Ganglia Of Lower Ani Mals, And Ramify Through All Parts Of I The Body, And Whose Function Is To Con Vey Impulses Resulting In Sensation, Mo ...

Or Papua New Guinea
New Guinea, Or Papua, A Large Island In Australasia, Next To Australia And Greenland The Largest On The Globe; Area, About 312,000 Square Miles; Length About 1,500 Miles, Breadth From 200 To 400. It Is Separated From Aus Tralia On The S. By Torres Strait, And From The Moluccas On ...

Or Psychology Mental Science
Mental Science, Or Psychology Is The Science Of The Mind. The Science Of The Mind Is The Latin Equivalent For The Word, Of Greek Derivation, Psychology. Both Are Concerned With What Is Called The Spiritual, Or Non-material, Part Of The Human Personality. The Great Advancement Made, Since Aristotle, In Psychology ...

The Maccabees
Maccabees, The, A Fraternal, Mu Tual-benefit Organization Established For Social And Benevolent Purposes In 1881. The Present Society United With The Mod Ern Knights In 1914. The Modern Mac Cabees Admit To Membership All Male Whites Of Good Moral Character Between The Ages Of 18 And 70. The Order Pro ...

The Meuse Argonne Battles
Meuse-argonne Battles, The. Marshal Foch, Commander-in-chief Of The Allied Armies In The Last Days Of Sep Tember, 1918, Continued The Offensive Against The German Forces From Switzer Land To The Sea. In Succession He Dealt A Heavy Blow To The German Flank In Flanders, Struck At The Enemy's Center Along ...

The National Observatory
National Observatory, The, A Government Institution, Division Of The Navigation Bureau Of The Navy Depart Ment, Washington, D. C. Here The Posi. Tion Of The Sun, Moon, Planets, And Stars Is Determined For "the American Ephem Erics And Nautical Almanac," And Standard Time Is Issued By Radio And Tele Graph ...

The Navy
Navy, The, A Term Used For A Country's Armed Force Operating On Water Or In Defense Of Coasts And Har Bors. The Earliest Recorded Sea-fights Were Waged By The Egyptians Against The Phoenicians, Phomans, And Mysians, About 3000 B. C. The Phcenicians, Among The Greatest Sea-faring People Of An Tiquity, ...

The Negro In America
Negro In America, The. The First Mention Of The Negro In America Is Found In The Records Of The Voyages Of Columbus. In 1501, Or Earlier, Negro Slaves Were Familiar In The West Indies, African Slaves Having Been Brought Over By The Spanish Émigrés. From 1505 To 1510 There Are ...

The Netherlands
Netherlands, The, Or Holland (dutch Nederland, Or Koninkrijk Der Nederlanden), A Kingdom Of Europe On The North Sea, N. Of Belgium And W. Of Part Of Northern Germany; Area 12, 648 Square Miles; Pop. (1917) 6,724,663. The Country Is Divided Into 11 Prov Inces: North Brabant, 'gelderland, South Holland, North ...