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country, colonies, islands, coast, settlements, carthage, sidon, phoenicians, foreign and nician

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COLONY (in Latin Colonia, a word derived from the Latin verb ' colo," co lere,' to till or cultivate the ground) ori ginally signified a number of people transferred from one country or place to another, where lands were allotted to them. The people themselves were called Coloni, a word corresponding to our term colonists. The meaning of the word was extended to signify the country or place where colonists settled, and is now generally applied to any settlement or land possessed by a sovereign state upon foreign soil. Thus Ceylon and the Mauritius are called British colonies, though they are not solely colonized by Englishmen, the former being chiefly inhabited by natives, and the second by French or descendants of French colo nists and Africans. The present notion of the word " colony " (as determined by the general use of the term) seems to be a foreign country, either wholly or partly colonized, that is to say, possessed and cultivated by natives, or the descendants of natives, of another country, and stand ing in some sort of political connection with and subordination to the mother country. The notion of a British colony implies that the waste lands belong to the British crown. The continental posses sions called British India are not a co lony • the island of Ceylon is a colony. The formation of colonies is among the oldest events recorded in history or handed down by tradition. Maritime states, such as those of Phoenicia and of Greece, which possessed only a scanty territory, would have recourse to emi gration as their population increased. In both these countries the sea afforded a facility for transferring a part of their superabundant citizens, with their fami lies and movables, and their arms, to some foreign coast, either uninhabited or thinly peopled by less civilized natives, who, by good will or by force, gave up to them a portion of their land. The emigration might be voluntary or forced ; it was sometimes the result of civil con tentions or foreign conquest, by which the losing party were either driven away, or preferred seeking a new country to re maining at home. The report of some remote fertile coast abounding in valuable productions would lead others to emigrate. Lastly, the state itself having discovered, by means of its merchants and mariners, some country to which they could trade with advantage, might determine upon sending out a party of settlers, and might establish a factory there for the purpose of sale or exchange. In fact, commercial enterprise seems to have led both to marl time discovery and to colonization as much as any one single cause. Such seem to have been the cause of the nu merous Phcenician colonies which, at s very early date, were planted along the coasts of the Mediterranean. Tyre itself was a colony of Sidon, according to the Old Testament,' which calls it the "daughter of Sidon." Leptis Magna, near the great Syrtis, was also a colony of Sidon, according to Sallust (Jugurth. c. 78). Hippo, Hadrumetum, Utica, and Tunes, were Phoenician colonies, and all of greater antiquity than Carthage, which was subsequently settled by Phoenicians in the neighbourhood of Tunes. The Phoenician colonies extended along the north coast of Africa as far as the Pillars of Hercules (the Straits), and along the opposite coast of Spain, as well as to the Balearic Islands, and Sardinia and Sicily. Those on the Spanish coast seem to have been at first small settlements or factories for the purpose of trade between the me tropolis or mother country and the na tives. Several of them, however, such

as Gades (the site of the modern Cadiz), became independent of the mother coun try. The foundation of Carthage was an instance of another kind. It resulted, ac cording to tradition, from an emigration occasioned by the tyranny of a king of Tyre.

Of the early settlements in the islands of the .Egean Sea we have only tra ditions referring to times previous to the war of Troy. Thucydides (i. 4) says that the Carians inhabited the Cyclades islands, and carried on piracy, until Mi nos, king of Crete. drove them away and planted new colonies. Thucydides does not mention the Phoenicians as occu pying the Cyclades, but he speaks of the islands of the /Egean generally as possessed by Carians and Phoenicians, who carried on piracy ; and he adds that they settled on most of the islands (i. 8). Herodotus (ii. 44 ; vi. 47) also states that the Phoenicians had once a settlement in the island of Thasus, where they worked the gold - mines. They also had a settlement on the island of Cythera (Cerigo), which lay conve niently for their trade with the Pelopon nesus. (Herodotus, i. 105.) Thncydides (vi. 2) mentions that the Phoenicians formed establishments on the promon tories and small islands on the coast of Sicily, from which they traded with the native Siculi ; but that when the Greeks came to settle in great numbers in that island, the Phmnicians abandoned several of their posts, and concentrated them selves at Motya, Soloeis, and Panormus, now Palermo (which must have then had another name, for Panormus, or All port, is Greek), near the district occupied by the Elymi or Phrygian colonists (who had emigrated from Asia after the fall of Troy, and had built Entella and Egesta), trusting to the friendship of the Elymi, and also to the proximity of these ports to Carthage. These three Phoe nician settlements merged afterwards into Carthaginian dependencies. The Phoe nician appear also to have occupied Melita or Malta, and the Lipari Islands, one of which retained the name of Phce nicusa. Of the Carthaginian settlements in Sardinia we have the report of Diodo rus (v. 13) and a fragment of Cicero Pro Scauro, published by Mai. (Com pare Pausanias, x. 17 • Strabo, p. 225, ed. Casaub.) Caralis (Cagliari) and Sulchi were Carthaginian settlements. A Phce nician inscription was found in a vineyard at Cape Pula, belonging to the monks of the order of Mercy, and was explained by De Rossi, Effemeridi Letterarie di Roma,' 1774. But the chief field of Phoe nician colonization was the north coast of Africa. There the Phoenician settlements seem to have been independent, both of the mother country and of each other. We have the instance of Utica and Tunes, which continued separate communities even after Carthage had attained great power, Carthage only exercising the he gemony, or supremacy. This seems to have been the case among the original Phmnician towns ; Sidon, Tyre, Aradus, and others, each a distinct commonwealth, formed a sort of federation, at the head of which was the principal city, at first Sidon, and afterwards Tyre. A feeling of mutual regard seems to have prevailed to the last amon* the various Phcenician towns and colonies, including Carthage, as members of one common family.

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