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Constitution
Constitution, A Term Often Used By Persons At The Present Day Without Any Precise Notion Of What It Means. Such A Definition Of A Constitution, If It Were Offered As One, Might Be Defended As Equally Good With Many Other Definitions Or Descriptions Which Are Involved In The Terms Used ...

Constitutions And Canons Ecclesiastical
Constitutions And Canons Ecclesiastical. King James I., In The First Year Of His Reign In England, By His Writ Directed To The Archbishop Of Canterbury, Summoned And Called The " Bishops, Deans Of Cathedral Churches, Archdeacons, Chapters And Colleges, And The Other Clergy Of Every Diocese Within The Province Of ...

Construction Lunatic Asylums Commis
Lunatic Asylums. Commis Sioners In Lunacy. Statis Tics, Construction, And Ma Nagement Of Asylums. The Subject Of Insanity And Asylums For The Insane Has Of Late Years Occupied A Very Large Share Of Public Attention ; Parti Cularly As An Opinion Has Prevailed That Insanity Is On The Increase In ...

Consul
Consul The Two Chief Magistrates Who Were Annually Elected By The Ro Mans Were Called Consuls. Their Powers And Functions Were The Same Or Nearly The Same As Those Of The Kings ; But They Were Elected And Only Held Office For A Year. The Original Name Was Praetor And ...

Contempt
Contempt. A Contempt In A Court Of Law Is A Disobedience Of The Rules, Orders, Or Process Of The Court, Or A Dis Turbance Or Interruption Of Its Proceed Ings. Contempts By Resistance To The Process Of A Court, Such As The Refusal Of A Sheriff To Return A Writ, ...

Contraband
Contraband, From The Italian Contrabandu, Against The Proclamation, A Term Commonly Used Iu Commercial Lan Guage To Denote Articles The Importation Or Exportation Of Which Is Prohibited By Law. Since The Adoption Of The Ware Housing System In Great Britain, The List Of Goods The Importation Of Which Is Pro ...

Convention Treaties
Convention Treaties. These Are Treaties Entered Into Between Different States, Under Which They Each Bind Them Selves To Observe Certain Stipulations Con Tained In The Treaty. In 1843 Two Acts Were Passed (6 & 7 Viet. C. 75 And C. 76) For Giving Effect To Conventions Between Her Majesty And ...

Convict Transportation Convocation
Convict. [transportation.] Convocation, The Assembly Of The Clergy Of England And Wales, Under The Authority Of The King's Writ, Which Takes Place At The Commencement Of Every New Parliament. The Convocation Writs Issue From The Crown Office, And Are Addressed To The Two Primates Of Can Terbury And York. The ...

Copyhold Baron
Baron, Copyhold, Courts, Distress, Estate, Lease, Manor, Tenures, And Such Other Articles As May Be Referred To In Those Last Mentioned. The Notions Of Loyalty, Of Honour, Of Nobility, And Of The Importance, Socially And Politically, Of Landed Over Other Pro Perty, Are The Most Striking Of The Feel Ings ...

Copyright
Copyright, Or, As It Was Formerly Termed, Copy, Has Been Defined By Lord Mansfield, "to Signify An Incorporeal Right To The Sole Printing And Publishing Of Somewhat Intellectual, Communicated By Letters." By This "somewhat Intellec Tual" Is To Be Understood Something Pro Ceeding From The Mind Of The Person By ...

Corn Laws
Corn-laws And Corn-trade. The History Of The Corn-laws And Corn Trade In This Country May Be Conveniently Divided Into Several Periods. Period 1.—from Early Times To 1688. A Statute Of The Thirteenth Century, Sup Posed To Be Of The Date Of 51 Henry Iii. (1266-7), Shows That The Average Prices ...

Corn Rent
Corn-rent Is A Money Rent Varying In Amount According To The Fluctuations Of The Price Of Corn. In Some Countries Rent Is Paid In The Produce Of The Land Itself Rents] ; But In No Partkingdom Does This Primitive Custom Exist. Some Landlords In Ireland, Indeed, For The Accommoda Tion ...

Coronation
Coronation, The Act Of Crowning Or Consecrating A King. This Rite Is Of Remote Antiquity, As May Be Gathered From The Notices Which We Have In Scrip Ture, In The First And Second Books Of Kings, Of The Coronations Of Solomon, And Of Joash The Son Of Ahaziah, Of The ...

Coroner
Coroner. The Coroner (coronat Or) Is An Ancient Officer By The Common Law Of England. The Name Is Said By Lord Coke To Be Derived " A Corona'," Because He Is An Officer Of The Crown, And Bath Conusance Iu Some Pleas Which Are Called Placita Corona." In This General ...

Corporation
Corporation. For The Purpose Of Maintaining And Perpetuating The Unin Terrupted Enjoyment Of Certain Powers, Rights, Property, Or Privileges, It Has Been Found Convenient To Create A Sort Of Arti Ficial Person, Or Legal Person, Not Liable To The Ordinary Casualties Which Affect The Transmission Of Private Rights, But Capable, ...

Cortes
Cortes, The Name Of The Assembly Of Representatives Of The Spanish Nation. These Assemblies Have Been Variously Constituted In Different Ages, And In The Different Kingdoms Into Which Spain Was Divided Till The Time Of Ferdinand And Isabella. The Cortex Of Castile And Leon And Those Of Aragon Were The ...

Cotton 696 Cotton
Cotton. [ 696 ] Cotton. Each Of These Looms, If Of Good Con Struction And Attended By A Skilful Weaver, Was Capable Of Producing 120 Yards Of Cloth Per Week, Or 6240 Yards In The Year, At Which Rate The Annual Productive Power Of The Whole Number Of Looms Amounted ...

Cotton Manufacture And Trade
Cotton Manufacture And Trade. The Use Of Cotton As A Mate Rial For The Production Of Woven Fabrics Was Known In India And China For Many Centuries Before Its Introduction Into Eu Rope. The Earliest Mention Of Cotton By The Greek Writers Is By Herodotns 106) In His Brief Notice ...

Council Of Areopagus
Areo'pagus, Council Of, A Council So Called From The Hill Of That Name, On Which Its Sessions Were Held; It Was Also Called The Council Above (rj Dwr T3o04), To Distinguish It From The Council Of Five Hundred. Whose Place Of Meeting Was In A Lower Part Of Athens, Called ...

Council Of The Church
Council Of The Church, An Assembly Of Prelates Who Meet, Being Duly Convoked By The Legitimate Authority, For The Purpose Of Defining Questions Of Doc Trine, Or Making Regulations Or Canons In Matters Of Discipline. There Are Various Sorts Of Councils : 1. General Or (ecumenic Councils, Which Are Considered ...

Counsel
Counsel, An Abbreviation Of Coun Sellor. In England A Counsellor Is A Bar Rister [barrister], Or One Who Has Kept Twelve Terms At One Of The Four Inns Of Court, And Has Been Called To The Bar. After Keeping His Terms A Man May Act As A Conveyancer, Special Pleader, ...

Count
Count, Through The French Word °orate, From The Latin Comes, Comitis, Meaning Companion. The Word, Though Simply Meaning Companion, Received Va Rious Particular Signification. Young Romans Of Family Used To Go Out With The Governor Of A Province And Commander Of Armies, Under Whom They Got An Insight Into Public ...

County Court
County Court. Before The 811. Perior Courts Of Westminster Were Created The County Courts Kept By The Sheriffs Were The Chief Courts Of The Kingdom. Their Powers Were, However, Greatly Curtailed By Magna Charts, And Their Ordinary Jurisdiction Limited To &fits Under 40a. Specialty Debts Were Not Reco Verable In ...

County Court Countycourt
County Court. [ County Court. Courts, Each Of Whom Must Be A Barrister Of Seven Years' Standing, Or A Barrister, Attorney, Or Other Person Who Has Pre Sided As Judge In A Local Court ; And They Are Removable For Inability, Or Their Dis Trict May Be Changed. By A ...

County Rate
County Rate. County Rates Are Taxes Levied For The Purposes Of Defray Ing The Expenses To Which Counties Are Liable. They Are Levied Either Under The Authority Of Acts Of Parliament, Or On The Principle That As Duties Are Imposed Upon A County, There Must Be A Power To Raise ...

Court Martial
Court-martial, A Tribunal Occa Sionally Instituted For The Purpose Of Try Ing Military And Naval Men For The Com Mission Of Offences Affecting Discipline In Either Of Those Branches Of The Public Service. Courts For The Trial Of Rebels By Martial Law Appear To Have Early Existed In This Country ...

Court Of Arches
Arches, Court Of, Is The Su Preme Court Of Appeal In The Arch Bishopric Of Canterbury. It Derives Its Name From Having Formerly Been Held In The Church Of St. Mary Le Bow (de Arcu Bus), From Which Place It Was Removed About 1567 To The Common Hall Of Doc, ...

Court Of Common Pleas
Common Pleas, Court Of, A Superior Court Of Record, Which Has Juris Diction Over England And Wales In All Common Pleas Or Civil Actions Commenced By Man Against Man. It Is At Present Composed Of Five Judges, One Of Whom Is Chief Justice And The Other Four Are Puisne Justices. ...

Court Of Delegates
Delegates, Court Of, Was The Great Court Of Appeal In Ecclesiastical Causes, And From The Decisions Of The Ad Miralty Court. It Was So Called Because The Judges Were Delegated Or Appointed By The King's Commission Under The Great Seal ; They Usually Consisted Of Judges Of The Courts At ...

Courtesy Of England
Courtesy Of England Is The Title Of A Husband To Enjoy For Life, After His Wife's Decease, Lands Of The Wife Of Which She And The Husband Were Seised In Deed In The Wife's Right, For An Estate Of Inheritance, And To Which Issue Of The Marriage Is Born Which ...

Courtesy Of Scotland
Courtesy Of Scotland, Other Wise Called In The Law Of That Kingdom Jus Curialitatis,' Or Right Of Courtship, Is Substantially The Same With The Courtesy Of England. As In The Latter Kingdom. Five Things Are Necessary To It; Namely, Marriage, That The Wife Is An Heiress And Infeft, Issue, And ...

Courts
Courts. The Word Court Has Come From The French Cour, Which Is From The Latin Curia. The Roman Citizens Were Originally Distributed Into Thirty Curiae, Which Were Political Divisions ; But The Name Curia Was Also Given To The Buildings In Which The Curiae Met. The Place Of Assembly Of ...

Courts Leet
[courts Leet. The Principal Subdivision In A County Is The Hundred, A District Which In Its Origin Bore Relation Rather To The Popu Lation Than To Any Uniform Geographical Limits. Mr. Hallam Considers It To Have Been A District Inhabited By 100 Free Families, And That A Different System Pre ...

Courts Of Request
Request, Courts Of (sometimes Called Courts Of Conscience), Are Local Tribunals, Founded By Act Of Parliament To Facilitate The Recovery Of Small Debts From Any Inhabitant Or Trader In The Dis Trict Defined By The Act. Although Courts Of Requests Have Been Superseded (see County Courts), It May Be Useful ...

Credit
Credit, In Commerce And In Political Economy, Signifies The Trusting Or Lending Of One Man's Property To Another. The Man Who Trusts Or Lends Is Said To Give Credit, And He Who Is Trusted Is Said To Obtain It. The One Is Called A Creditor, And The Other A Debtor. ...

Criminal Law
Law, Criminal. The Object Of The English As Of Every Other System Of Criminal Law Is The Prevention Of Inju Ries By The Terror Of Punishment ; But It Is Not Every Injury The Commission Of Which The Thinks Fit To Prevent By Such Means ; In Most Cases It ...

Curator
Curator, From The Latin Cura, `care.' Curators In Ancient Rome Were Public Officers Of Various Kinds, Particu Htrly After The Time Of Augustus, Who Eotablished Several Officers With This Title. (s'uet., Augustus, Cap. S7.) 1. Curatores Viarum, That Is, Curators Win) Superintended The Laying Out And Repairing Of The Public ...

Customs Duties
Customs-duties Consist For The Most Part Of Taxes Levied Upon Goods And Produce Brought For Consumption From Foreign Countries; Such Duties Are Some Times Collected Upon Exports Made To Foreign Countries, And Upon Goods And Produce Passing From One Port To An Other Of The Same Country. Of This Na ...

Damages
Damages, For Which The Law Latin Uses The Word Damns, Signifies A Com Pensation Iu Money Which A Man Gets By The Verdict Of A Jury For Some Wrong That He Has Sustained. The Damages Is Any Action In Which Compensation For Wrong May Be Got Are Assessed By A ...

Deacon
Deacon, An Ecclesiastical Term Of' Greek Origin, From Niciscorot (diaconus, Literally, A Servant), Introduced Into The Saxon Vocabulary, And Continued In Use To The Present Time. It Designates One Of The Orders In The Christian Priesthood, The Lowest Of The Three—bishops, Priests, And Deacons. The First Institution Of The Order ...

Deadweight National Debt Dean
Deadweight. [national Debt.] Dean (french Dorn, And In Latin Decanus), A Word Which, At First Sight, Would Appear To Be Allied To Deacon, But Which Has Probably A Different Origin. Etymologists Seem Not To Be Agreed Con Cerning The Origin Of The Word; But The Most Usual Origin Assigned To ...

Deaths Births
Births, Deaths, And Marriages.] In Addition To These Means Of Information Re Specting The Population, There Are In Most States Returns Respecting Property, Which Further Illustrate The Condition Of The People. [statistics.] In The Nited States Of North America The Representative System Is Based On Numbers, And Whenever Direct Taxation ...

Deed
Deed, An Instrument In Writing Or Print, Upon Paper Or Parchment, Compre Hending The Terms Of An Agreement Be Tween Parties Able To Contract, Duly Sealed And Delivered. The Name For A Deed In The Law French Of Littleton And Others Isfait, That Is, Facials, A Thing Done ; Of ...

Demand And Supply
Demand And Supply Are Terms Used In Political Economy To Express The Relations Between Consumption And Pro Duction—between The Demand Of Pur Chasers And The Supply Of Commodities By Those Who Have Them To Sell. The Rela Tions Between The Demand For An Article And Its Supply Determine Its Price ...