COTTON. [ 696 ] COTTON.
Each of these looms, if of good con struction and attended by a skilful weaver, was capable of producing 120 yards of cloth per week, or 6240 yards in the year, at which rate the annual productive power of the whole number of looms amounted to 684 millions of yards.
Hitherto it has not been practicable to produce any but coarse or heavy goods by means of the power-loom ; fine cali coes, muslins, and fancy goods are woven by the hand. The number of hand-loom weavers cannot be ascertained with the same correctness as the number of power looms, the latter being collected together in factories which are under the super intendence of official inspectors, while band-loom weaving is altogether a do mestic manufacture carried on in the cot tages of the artisans. Computations of the number of these domestic looms have been made by different intelligent persons conversant with the trade, who have es timated them variously ; the lowest at 200,000 and the highest at 250,000.
Mr. Kennedy, who is considered a good authority on this subject, supposed the value of cotton goods made in Great Bri tain in 1832, when the quantity of the raw material used was about 12 per cent. less than in 1833, was 24,760,0001. Mr. Baines, who has taken great pains to test the accuracy of his calculations in every possible way, has made the value amount, in 1833, to 31,338,6931. Of this value the part exported amounted to and the value of the goods remaining for home consumption would therefore be 12,879,6931. (Hist. of Cotton Manufac ture, p. 412.) Following Mr. Baines's mode of calculation, Mr. Porter estimated the value of the cotton goods manufac tured in 1841 at 48,641,3431. ; and as the exports, including yarn, amounted to 24,668,6181., there would remain for home consumption goods to the value of 23,972,7251. The capital invested in the cotton manufacture in Great Britain is variously estimated at from 30,000,0001. to 34,000,0001. ; and Mr. Baines regards the latter estimate as very moderate.
The number of persons returned under the head Cotton Manufacture in the Cen sus Returns of 1841 is 302,376, to which should be added those returned under the heads Hose and Lace, which are branches of the Cotton Manufacture, and also a proportionate number of those who were returned as weavers, spinners, and factory workers fabric not specified'), and we have then a total of nearly half a million persons engaged in this great branch of national industry, and this at a time when it was in a very depressed state.
Cotton . 377,6b2 Hose . 50,955 Lace . 35,347 463,964 The ages and sex of the above number (377,662) engaged in the manufacture of cotton fabrics were as follows :— Males aged 20 and upwards. 138,112 under 20 . . 59,171 Females aged 20 and upwards . 104,470 under 30 . . 75,909 The employment of young persons in cotton factories is regulated by statute. [FscroniEs Ac-r.] The first cotton-mill built in the United States was set to work in Rhode Island in 1790, and about the same time one was erected at Beverley, Massachusetts, by an incorporated company. The manu facture made at first so little progress in the United States, that up to 1808 not more than 15 spinning-mills had been erceted. There was a great increase in 1812, occasioned by the war between England and America; again from 1820 to 1825 much capital was applied to this object; also in 1831 and 1832; and still more since the passing of the tariff of 1842, which imposed higher import duties on cotton and other manufactured goods generally.
In 1840 the number of cotton manufac tories in the United States was 1240, which employed 2,284,631 spindles, and produced manufactured articles valued at 46,350,000 dollars. The capital invested was estimated at 51,000,000 dollars ; and the number of persons employed, includ ing dyers, printers, &c., was 72,119. The value of goods produced in Massachu setts in 1840 was 16,553,000 dollars ; Rhode Island 7,116,000; Pennsylvania, 5,013,000; New Hampshire, 4,142,000, New York, 3,640,000 ; Connectiatt, 2715,964; New Jersey, 2,086,104; Mary land, 1,150,000 dollars ; and in other States in smaller quantities. One-half of the cotton manufacture was carried on in Massachusetts and Rhode Island.