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Milking and the Care of Milk

fat, fodder, quantity, quality, cows, increase and cattle

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MILKING AND THE CARE OF MILK Here we will consider cow's milk exclusively.

Among the true bovines (Bos taitrus) Wilckens distinguishes: (1) Cattle of the plains; for example, in Hungary. (2) Lowland cattle; for example, in Holland, the Holsteins. Oldenburgers. Shorthorns, Ayr shires. (3) Highland cattle, in Middle Germany and South Germany, Sussex, and Guernsey. (4) Mountain cattle of various kinds; for ex ample, Simmenthaler (with foreheads), A4.,ratter (short-horned), Zillerthaler (with short heads).

In general, Lowland cows, especially those from Holland, are clis tinguished by the abundance of the yield; Highland cows, particularly the thoroughbred English breeds, by the quality of the milk: Short horns, by their capacity for acclimatization, which makes it possible to keep them in open sheds in winter. This characteristic tends to pro mote cleanliness in the sheds. Furthermore, in considering the utili zation of crude milk we shall have to lay stress upon the fact that in many breeds the ratio of casein to coagulable allmminoids is 5: 1, in others 3:1. Milk of this latter class is preferable for children.

The breed is the foundation on which the action of the fodder is based. Deficient nutrition, especially food poor in albumins, decreases the production of milk. On the other hand, with good witch cows, fodder rich in proteins increases the yield. Food that is rich in fat increases the fat in the milk, partly by direct transmission from the fodder, as may be demonstrated by the iodine index of refraction, by the inciting-point of the milk fat, by the llalphen reaction with cotton seed oil, or Baudouin reaction with sesame oil. Native fat in the fodder is more efficacious than is fat added from without, vet the so-called relishes (fennel, goat's beard, hops) are said to promote the formation of the fats. Increase in the supply of carbohydrates, accompanied by a decrease in the supply of albumin, both the quantity and the quality of the milk. Fodder containing a large amount of sugar (c.y., sugar beets) increases the amount of volatile fatty acids in the milk fat. Small portions of all the salts contained in the fodder pass into the milk, and by this means the proportion of chlorine, calcium, and iron can be modified. Mineral and vegetable poisons pass through the milk gland. The latter are especially dangerous when the animal itself is immune to the poison (as goats are to euphorbia, conium, and col chicum). Finally, vegetable germs of color and odor and vegetable fer

ments, are secreted with the milk. The milk may absorb odors from the fodder lying in the stable. Some foods (as turnip leaves. bad mash, and wet grass) may produce a diarrhoea in the animals, which, by caus ing a stronger bacterial infection in the milk, may give rise to severe cases of diarrhoea in children. The admixture of an astringent (calcium phosphate) with such food has a favorable effect. Feeding with gar bage seems also to increase the germs in the milk. Much investigation is still needed to determine which foods produce the lactic acid and which the proteolytic micro-organisms in milk.

to about the eighth year the quantity and quality of milk in crease; after that they fall off. The period of lactation continues for 11 months; with farrow cows (not pregnant) even 2 years. The milk of the first three days after delivery (biestings) mostly coagulates in boiling, because of its large proportion of albuminoids of the kind that coagulate by heat. It should not be sold. In the course of the period of lactation, from about the eighth month, the quantity of milk, the pro portion of sugar, the extractives, and potassium decrease, while the fat, casein, and sodium increase. In regard to the coagulable albuminoids no conclusion has been reached. With many animals heat diminishes the quantity and quality of the milk, as does the weaning of the calves and any depressing influence. Excessive work injures both, and alters the composition of the fat. The method of milking is of great impor tance. The quantity and the quality of the milk increase with frequency and thoroughness in milking. From the beginning to the end of the milking, whether only one or all four of the teats are milked at a time, the proportion of fat rises. slowly at first, very rapidly at the end. At a milking, for example, for successive quantities of 150 c.c. it would be 0.7, 1.2, 3, 3.9, 1.1. 1.3, 4.35, 4.35, 4.1, 4.7, S.9. If at the close, the udders are massaged and the milking resumed (Hagelund method) a milk very rich in fat will be obtained. The bacteria are most numerous at first. The last milk may be free from germs if no infection supervenes.

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